AP Computer Science Week 1

According to the author, what is one of the most important elements of learning in a classroom?

The student-teacher relationship

What is the "exposure equation"?

Bewilderment + Exposure = Obvious

What will your time in the computer lab primarily be devoted too?

Writing computer programs

How is writing a computer program different from writing an essay?

You have to follow very precise rules of writing

Why do some people experience "roller coaster emotions" in computer science?

People get excited when a program works and depressed when it does not.

Learning computer science, like learning most lab sciences, is most effective when you do what?

Learn by observation

What is the first step in learning computer science?

Read the assigned textbook pages

During the lecture, what topics should you pay particular attention too?

The ones that confused you

What should you do if you are confused?

Ask questions

What should you do after the lecture?

Reread the textbook pages

What should you do before a scheduled lab?

Read the lab requirements

What should you do on a lab assignment when you are "stuck"?

Get help

Does cramming work in computer science?

No

List 2 problems with copying another student's lab and turning in as your own.

1.You do not learn. 2.It is not ethical

What is one of the first calculating machines that still used today?

Abacus

John Napier set the stage for which sophisticated calculating device?

The slide rule

What is one of the first examples of programming?

Jacquard's Loom

Who is considered the mother of programming?

Ada Lovelace

The tabulating machine invented by Herman Hollerith set the stage for which modern company?

IBM

Who was the first programmer of the Mark I?

Grace Hopper

What is the ENIAC?

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer is the first fully electronic computer

What is the first commercially successful programming language?

FORTRAN

Which business language was developed by Grace Hopper?

COBOL

What is the first programming language used on personal computers?

BASIC, Beginner All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language

Which programming language was developed for teaching computer science?

Pascal

What is the first commercially successful personal computer?

Apple II

What is the first wide spread computer program?

Visicalc

When was the IBM P.C. introduced?

1981

Who did IBM use for the operating system of its personal computer?

MS-DOS (MicroSoft Disk Operating System) run by Bill Gates

Which computer was the first commercially successful machine with mouse technology?

Apple Macintosh

List 3 areas where computers are superior to human beings.

Faster, better memory and more accurate

What is really the cause of most "computer errors"?

Human programming error or data input error

If you have important information saved on a disk, what should you do to protect against the possibility of losing this information?

Back up the data

What is Morse Code based on?

Long and short signals

What is the secret of Morse Code?

Electricity can be turned on and off

How many different combinations of "on" and "off" are possible with 8 "lightbulbs"?

256

What number system do you use?

Base 10

What number system does the computer use?

Base 2

What does ASCII stand for?

American Standard Code of Information Interchange

What ASCII range is used for the "standard set of characters"?

0..127

What ASCII range is used for the "extended set of characters"?

128..255

What is "bit" an abbreviation for?

Binary digit

How many bits are in a byte?

8

How is Unicode different from ASCII?

It uses two bytes and adds many characters

What is a "nibble"?

4 bits

How many different combinations are possible with 2 bytes?

65,536

Early computers used vacuum tubes. How much information did one vacuum tube store?

One bit

What eventually replaced the vacuum tubes?

Transistors

What do computers use today to store information?

Planar transistors on microchips

What is the relationship between the base, and the largest single digit number in that base?

The largest digit is one less than the base.

Convert the hexadecimal number CAB to binary.

1100 1010 1011

Convert the binary number 1010 1011 1110 to hexadecimal.

A B E

What number system is typically used to display memory addresses?

Base16

What is the main board in a computer, with all the primary computer components, called?

Motherboard

What are computer chips made out of?

Silicon

When a metal is a "semiconductor" that means it allows you to precisely control the flow of what?

Electrons

What kind of chip stores permanent information for the computer?

ROM

What does ROM stand for?

Read Only Memory

What kind of chip stores temporary information for the computer?

RAM

What does RAM stand for?

Random Access Memory

Which stores more information, gigabytes or terabytes?

Terabytes

Exactly how many bytes are in a kilobyte?

1024

What does CPU stand for?

Central Processing Unit

The CPU is essentially the _______ of the computer.

Brains

Iron Oxide is the technical term for something we use to store information on a disk. What is the more common term?

Rust

What secondary storage device is coded with areas that reflect and absorb laser light?

CDs

Is a protractor digital or analog?

Analog

What type of information allows you to make a precise copy of the original?

Digital