Psychology 1

What are some research methods psychologists use?

Naturalistic observation, case studies, surveys, and experiments.

What are some pros and cons to naturalistic observation?

Pros: Observing subjects in their natural habitat, avoid artificial labCons: Less control, target behavior may not occur

What are some pros and cons of case studies?

Pros: Rich description of subject, easy to controlCons: Observer bias, difficult to summarize subject's experience

What are some pros and cons of surveys?

Pros: Ease of administration, ease of scoring and analysisCons: Difficulty generalizing results, disrepancies between real-life and test behavior

What are some pros and cons of experiments?

Pros: Precise control of independent variables, large amounts of people allow generalized resultsCons: Less intensive study, ability to generalize real-world bahavior is limited

What is informed consent?

a legal procedure to ensure that a patient or client knows all of the risks and costs involved in a treatment. The elements of informed consents include informing the client of the nature of the treatment, possible alternative treatments, and the potential risks and benefits of the treatment.

Why must psychologists sometimes use deception?

psychologists keep the subject out of the loop then debriefs the subject afterward

Structuralism- Wundt

Understanding the mind by analyzing fundamental elements (senses, thoughts)

Funtionalism- James

Focused on psychological processes and behavior that helps people adapt to the environment.

Psychodynamic Psychology- Freud

Understanding why we have abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings

What is the antithesis against Structuralism?

Funtionalism

Behaviorism- Watson

Objective psychology focused on the relationship between observable behavior and environmental stimulii

Humanistic- Maslow, Rogers

Emphasized consious experience in personal development rather that the unconsious, free will and importance of human potential

Cognitivist- Neisser's

Thought is the basis of understanding behavior

Biologic- Sperry, Hippocrates

You cannot study the mind without studying the body, different regions in the brain are responsible for different mental processes

Neuron

an individual nerve cell

Synapse

space between neurons

Neurotransmitters

any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons

Somatic Nervous System

skeletal movements

Autonomic Nervous System

Muscles in self-regulated systems (cardiac, vessels, organs)

Sympathetic System (Catabolism)

Part of ANS that arouses body: fight or flight

Parasympathetic System (Anabolism)

Part of ANS that quiets the body: calm, relaxed

What are 5 ways in which we study the brain?

Neuron readings, human cadavers, animal research, injured brain case studies, and brain imaging

Phineas Gage

Was hit in the head by a metal bar and caused a personality change from the damage to the frontal cortex

Broca's Region

Language area related to grammar and pronunciation; little to no vowels, slow speech, aware of problem

Wernicke's Region

temporal lobe brain area related to language comprehension; rapid speech, nonsense, unaware of problem

Sensory

of the senses

Motor

of movement

Interneuron

A neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, esp. as part of a reflex arc

Myelin

Fatty substance covering the axon

Soma

main body of a neuron

Dendrite

neuron fibers that reveive incoming messages

Axon

fiber that carries information away from a neuron

Terminus

2.The end of a polypeptide or polynucleotide chain or similar long molecule

Action Potential

the nerve impulse, the electromchemical reaction to positive ions

Refractory Phase

transfers motor, sensory, and cognitive information between the brain hemispheres.

Threshold

often used in neuroscience and experimental research; the smallest detectable level of a stimulus.

Presynaptic

1.Relating to or denoting a nerve cell that releases a transmitter substance into a synapse during transmission of an impulse

Postsynaptic

a neuron to the cell body or dendrite of which an electrical impulse is transmitted across a synaptic cleft by the release of a chemical neurotransmitter from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron

Excitation

causing a neuron to become active

Inhibition

causing a neuron to prevent action

Transmitter Reuptake

inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals

Enzymatic deactivation

The disappearance of an enzymes activity during in vitro conditions, such as during a lab preparation of the enzyme, where the enzyme is exposed to conditions not normally found within its environment inside a living cell (like different ph, excess or too little salt, temperature changes, etc.)

Acetylcholine

excites skeletal, inhibits memory and cardiac

Dopamine

movement, attention, pleasure

Serotonin

arousal and sleep, appetite, mood, pain

(CNS) Central Nervous System

the brain and spine

Sensory Afferents

Are sensory in nature.• Receive information from sensoryreceptors (structures) and sends thatinformation toward the central nervoussystem

Motor Efferents

Gets information from the centralnervous system and sends it to themuscles of the body.

Corpus Callosum

thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres; connects the left and right sides of the brain allowing for communication between both hemispheres; transfers motor, sensory, and cognitive information between the brain hemispheres.

Cingulate Gyrus

Coordinates sensory input with emotions, emotional responses to pain, & regulates aggressive behavior

Hippocampus

memory formation

Amygdala

emotion

Hypothalamus

regulates emotional behaviors and motives

Frontal Lobe

executive center: judgement, decision-making

Motor Cortex

Deals with motion

Occipital Lobe

visual processing

Parietal Lobe

somatosensory processing of sensation of skin and muscles

Somatosensory Cortex

deals with the senses

Temporal

hearing, smell balance

Homunculus

little person": Output from motor cortex, input from sensory cortex

Electroencephalogram

device that detects, amplifies, and records the brain's electrical activity

Computerized Axial Tomography

computer 3D X-ray image of the brain used to detect blood clots, tumors, diseas; reveals structure not function

Positron Emission Tomography

A computer-generated image of brain activity based on glucose consumption

Funtional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Uses magnetic fields to measure brain structure and density; also measures brain activity during cognitive tasks

Thesis

A written theory obtained from research

Antithesis

A theory that disproves another theory, or proves the opposite of a particular theory

Rationalist- Plato

knowledge throught logic and philosophic analysis

Empiricist- Aristotle

evidence through experience, observe, and experiment- can understand mind by studying body

Mind-body dualist

The mind and body are separate

Mind-body monist

The mind and body are one

Psyche in head

Mind is in the head, thought by rationalists

Psyche in heart

Mind is in the heart due to emotions, thought by empiricists

What is the scientific process?

1. Define the problem2. Hypothetical construct vs. Operational definition3. Formulate hypothesis4. Strategy or method5. Test hypothesis6. Discuss, disseminate results

How many psychology studies utilize non-human animals?

Less that 10%

Why do we use non-humans in psychological research?

Humane treatment

What is psychology?

The study of mentel processes, behavior, and the relationship bewteen them

Random sample

sample chosen at random; sometimes biased

Representative sample

Sample of people representing the correct ratios of the kinds of people in the population

Peripheral Nervous System

Everything else besides the brain and spinal cord

Cerebral Cortex

the outer layer of the brain (the convoluted part)

Aphasia

Speech disturbance from brain damage