Science and Scientists


knowledge gained by observing the natural world

environmental scientist

studies how humans interact with their environment


makes maps of surface of the earth


puts scientific knowledge to practical us (e.g, buildings, roads, bridges, etc.)


studies animals

science educator

teaches others about science


how do scientists investigate their questions

three ways to answer questions about science

research, observation, and experimentation

three benefits of science

protecting lives, resources, and environment

How may scientific knowledge be modified by research?

While doing research, new information may challenge existing theories leading to development of new theories.

science disciplines share common-


What can be learned by studying scientific methods and events?

answer questions and solve problems

steps of scientific method

1. ask question, 2. form hypothesis, 3. test hypothesis, 4. analyze results, 5. draw conclusions, 6. communicate results

Why are accurate report keeping, openness, and replication of results important?

maintain investigator's credibility


process of using the senses to gather information


pieces of information gathered through experimentation

controlled experiment

experiment testing only one factor at a time.


the one factor that is changed in a controlled experiment

What happens when similar investigations give different results?

verify by further study

three kinds of tools scientists use

tools for seeing , measuring, and analyzingExamples: seeing-microscope; measuring-balance; measuring-calculator

2 advantages of metric system

1. help all scientists share and compare observations and results, 2. all units are based on the number 10

How is length measure?

meter, centimeter, micrometer, etc.

How is area measured?(how much surface)

squared meters, squared centimeters, squared kilometers

How is mass measured?(amount of matter making up object)

kilograms, grams, metric ton

How is volume measured?

cubic meters, cubic centimeters, cubic millimeters

How is temperature measured?

degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, kelvin

Precautions scientists must take with human subjects


2 important reasons for following safety rules rules prevent accidents 2. safety rules prevent injuries when accidents happen

5 elements of safety

1. recognizing safety symbols 2. following directions 3. being neat 4. using safety equipment 5. using proper cleanup procedures

First Aid

emergency medical care

4 steps to follow after an accident

1. remain calm 2. secure area 3. inform teacher 4. assist teacher with first aid and clean up