being sound in body, mind and spirit.


purposeful, enjoyable living or, a deliberate lifestyle choice characterized by personal responsibility and optimal enhancement of physical, mental and spiritual health

psychological health:

both our emotional and mental states - that is, to our feelings and our thoughts.

physical health:

getting the proper food, exercise and avoid harmful behaviors and substances - take care of the body

spiritual health:

identifying own basic purpose in life; learn how to experience love, joy, peace and fulfillment; help themselves and others achieve their full potential

social health:

ability to interact effectively with other people and the social environment, to develop satisfying interpersonal relationships, and to fulfill social roles. contributing to community, living in harmony with fellow human beings, developing positive interd

intellectual health:

ability to think and learn from life experience, your openness to new ideas and your capacity to question and evaluate information

environmental health:

the impact your world has on your well-being. protecting yourself from dangers in the air, water and soil and in products you use - and working to preserve the environment itself

Healthy People 2020

a comprehensive set of national public health objectives as part of the Healthy People Initiative. this departments vision is to create a society in which all people can live long, healthy lives.

What race(s) is most likely to develop cancer?

black Americans

What race(s) is most likely to develop cardiovascular disease?

African Americans

What race(s) is most likely to develop diabetes:

American Indians and Alaska Natives, African Americans, and Hispanics.

What race(s) is most likely to have infant mortality?

African American, American Indian and Puerto Rican

What race(s) is most likely to have mental health issues?

American Indians and Alaska Natives

What race(s) is most likely to develop infectious disease?

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

What race(s) is most likely to get HIV and STD's?

African Americans and Hispanics


a classification, generally as male or female, according to the reproductive organs and functions that derive from the chromosomal complement.


a person's self-representation as male or female or how that person is responded to by social institutions on the basis of the individuals gender presentation

biological factors:

such as the fact that women have two X chromosomes and men only one, different level of sex hormones and metabolic variations

social factors:

including work stress, hostility levels, and social networks and supports

behavioral factors:

such as risky behavior, aggression, violence, smoking and substance abuse

health habits:

including regular screening, preventive care, and minimizing of symptoms


information and support offered to help healthy people identify their health risks, reduce stressors, prevent potential medical problems, and enhance their well-being


measures that an individual can take when participating in risky behavior to prevent injury or unwanted risks

social norm:

a behavior or attitude that a particular group expects, values and enforces

healthy literacy:

ability to understand health information and use it to make good decisions about health and medical care.

evidence-based medicine:

the choice of a medical treatment on the basis of large randomized controlled research trials and large prospective studies

practice guidelines:

recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of various health problems based on evidence from scientific research

predisposing factors:

the beliefs, values, attitudes, knowledge and perceptions that influence our behavior


they knowledge that they are at risk for the negative consequences of their behavior


they believe that they may pay a very high price if they don't make change


they believe that the proposed change will be advantageous to their health

factors that shape positive behavior:

1. predisposing factors
2. enabling factors
3. reinforcing factors

enabling factors:

the skills, resources and physical and mental capabilities that shape our behavior

reinforcing factors:

rewards encouragement, and recognition that influence our behavior in the short run

health belief model (HBM):

a model of behavioral change that focuses on the individual's attitudes and beliefs

transtheoretical model:

a model of behavioral change that focuses on the individual's decision making[; it states that an individual progresses through a sequence of six stages as he or she makes a change in behavior


belief in one's ability to accomplish a goal or change a behavior


have no intention of making a change, vaguely uncomfortable, but this is where your grasp of what is going on ends


you being to get it; you acknowledge that something is amiss and begin to consider what it is and whether you can do anything about it.


stop waffling, make a clear decision and feel a burst of energy. - gather info, make phone calls, do online research etc.


you actively modify your behavior according to your plan. resolve is strong and you know you're on your way to a better you


locking in and consolidating gains. necessary to retain what you've worked for and to make change permanent. strengthen, enhance, and extend the changes you've initiated.


change" has become status quo. may take two to five years the behavior has become so deeply ingrained that you can't imagining abandoning it.


increasing knowledgge about yourself or the nature of your problem

social liberation:

takes advantage of alternatives in the external environment that can help you begin or continue your efforts to change

emotional arousal:

known as dramatic relief, works on a deeper level than consciousness-raising and is equally important: means experiencing and expressing feelings about a problem behavior and its potential solutions


requires thoughtful reappraisal of your problems, including an assessment of the person you might be once you have changed the behavior


acknowledges - first privately and then publicly - that you are responsibly for your own behavior and are the only one who can change it


reinforces positive behavioral changes with self-praise or small gifts


substitutes healthy behaviors for unhealthy ones

environmental control:

restructures your environment so you are less likely to engage in a problem behavior

helping relationships:

recruits individuals - family, friends, therapist, coach - to provide support, caring understanding and acceptance

locus of control:

an individual's belief about the sources of power and influence over his or her life

emotional health:

the ability to express and acknowledge one's feelings and moods and exhibit adaptability and compassion for others

mental health:

the ability to perceive reality as it is, respond to its challenges and develop rational strategies for living


the set of shared attitudes, values goals and practices of a group that are internalized by an individual within a group


a healthy form of self-acceptance in the face of perceived inadequacy or failure

emotional intelligence:

a term used by some psychologists to evaluate the capacity of people understand themselves and relate well with others


a state of wellness and fulfillment that can be achieved once a certain human needs are satisfied; living to one's full potential


confidence and satisfaction in oneself

Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs:

-physiological needs
-safety and security
-love and affection


a sustained emotional state that colors one's view of the world for hours or days


the ability to draw on internal resources; independence from familial and societal influences

locus of control:

an individual's belief about the source of power and influence over his or her life


behaving in a confident manner to make your needs and desires clear to others in a nonhostile way

social isolation:

a feeling unconnectedness with others caused by and reinforced by infrequency of social contacts

social phobia:

a severe form of social anxiety marked by extreme fears and avoidance of social situations


the criteria by which one makes choices about one's thoughts, actions goals and ideals.


acts of helping or giving to others without thought of self-benefit

sleep's impact on health:

learning and memory
matabolism and weight
mood/quality of life
life satisfaction
immunity/cancer prevention

mental disorder:

a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that is associated with present distress (a painful symptom) or disability (impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with a significantly increased risk of suffer


frequent, prolonged mild depression

major depression:

sadness that does not end; ongoing feelings of utter helplessness

bipolar disorder:

severe depression alternating with periods o manic activity and elation

anxiety disorders:

a group of psychological disorders involving episodes of apprehension, tension or uneasiness,stemming from the anticipation of danger and sometimes accompanied by physical symptoms, which cause significant distress and impairment to an individual


an anxiety disorder marked by an inordinate fear of an object, class of objects, or a situation resulting in extreme avoidance behaviors

panic attack:

a short episode characterized by physical sensations of light-headedness, dizziness, hyperventilation a numbness of extremities, accompanied by an inexplicable terror; usually of a physical disaster such as death

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD):

an anxiety disorder characterized as chronic distress

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD):

an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions and or compulsions that impair one's ability to function and form relationships

panic disorder:

an anxiety disorder in which the apprehension or experience of recurring panic attacks is so intense that normal functioning is impaired

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD):

a spectrum of difficulties in controlling motion and sustaining attention, including hyperactivity impulsivity and distractibility


a general term for a group of mental disorders with characteristics psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations and disordered thought patterns during the active phase of the illness and duration of at least six months


treatment designed to produce a response by psychological rather than physical means, such as a suggestion, persuasion reassurance and support


interpreting behaviors in terms of early experiences and unconscious influences

cognitive therapy:

a technique used to identify an individuals beliefs and attitudes, recognize negative thought patterns and educate in alternative ways of thinking

behavioral therapy:

a technique that emphasizes application of the principles of learning to substitute desirable responses and behavior patterns for undesirable ones

interpersonal therapy (IPT):

a technique used to develop communication skills and relationships

psychiatric drugs:

medications that regulate a person's mental, emotional and physical functions to facilitate normal functioning


the nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; may be characterized by muscle tension and acute anxiety or may be a positive force for action


specific or nonspecific agents or situations that cause the stress response in a body


positive stress, which stimulates a person to function properly


a negative stress that may result in ilness

general adaptation syndrome (GAS):

an anxiety disorder characterized as chronic distress; alarm - resistance - exhaustion


the body's natural state of balance or stability

adaptive response:

the body's attempt to reestablish homeostasis or stability

diathesis stress model:

a psychological theory that explains behavior as a result of both nature and nurture

what does cortisol do?

speeds conversion of proteins and fats into carbohydrates, the body's basic fuel, so we have the energy to fight or flee from a threat


the process of psychosocial change by which an ethnic minority changes as a consequence of contact with the ethnic majority


a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion resulting from constant or repeated emotional pressure

defense mechanism:

a psychological process that alleviates anxiety and eliminates mental conflict, includes denial, displacement, projection, rationalization, reaction formation and repression

posttramautic stress disorder (PTSD):

the repeated reliving of a trauma through nightmares or recollection


a group of approaches that use quiet sitting, breathing techniques, and or chanting to relax, improve concentration and become attuned to one's inner self


a method of stress reduction that involves experiencing the physical and mental sensations of the present moment

progressive relaxation;

a method of reducing muscle tension by contracting, then relaxing, certain areas of the body

visualization, or guided imagination:

an approach to stress control, self-healing or motivating life changes by means of seeing oneself in the state of calmness, wellness or change