WHAP Unit 1-Foundations Essential Terms

Neolithic Revolution

WHO:Mesopotamia, India, North Africa/Nile River Civilization, *Europe, China (Huang He)
WHAT:Due to a lack of large food sources and a larger population of humans following the ice age, hunters had to turn to a new food source, agriculture (hunters > farm

Bantu Migrations

WHO: Bantu people, Africans
WHAT: A people who spread in Africa, resulting in cultural diffusion
WHEN: about 1000 B.C.E.
WHERE: Africa
WHY: The Bantu peoples language, use of iron, practice of agriculture, etc, provided a base for the African people to un

Polynesian Migrations

WHO: Polynesians, those of the islands of the Pacific, who became Hawaiians.
WHAT: The people of Polynesia migrate onto the Hawaiian islands.
WHEN: before 7th century, to 1300s or 1400s
WHERE: Polynesia, Hawaii
WHY: The people of Polynesia, in war boats,

Bronze Age

WHO: Middle East, (spread throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe). Smiths, Artisans, and farmers specifically.
WHAT: The use of metal tools (specifically made of bronze) replaced tools made of wood, bone, and stone.
WHEN: 3000 B.C.E.
WHERE: Middle East (spre


WHO: Sumerians, Acadians, Babylonians
WHAT: The first founded civilization to create many ideas that were used in other civilizations and are still used today.
WHEN: 3500 B.C.E.
WHERE: Between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the middle East (current da

Nile River Civilization

WHO: Egyptians, along the Nile River.
WHAT: Another civilization sprang up from the trade and technological influence of Mesopotamia.
WHEN: 3000 B.C.E.
WHERE: Egypt (Northern Africa, along the Nile River).
WHY: This civilization had more government contro


WHO: Nubians/Africans/Christians
WHAT: The ancient land of the Kush,
WHEN: 4th centery C.E.
WHERE: An area right under Egypt (Nile River civilization)
WHY: A land of Christian resistance against the spreading Islam world.

Hammurabi's Code

WHO: Hammurabi (King of Babylon)
WHAT: A code that established rules of procedure for courts of law and regulated property rights, family member duties, and set punishments for crimes.
WHEN: 1800-1750 B.C.E. (slab in Iran found in 1901)
WHERE: Babylon/Mes

Iron Metallurgy

WHO: Yellow River Civilization, Spread to rest of world
WHAT: The use of Iron, after bronze, following the bronze age.
WHEN: After the bronze age, around 1000 B.C.E.
WHERE: China, spread.
WHY: The use of iron rather than bronze. Changes along with religio

Patriarchal Society

WHO: Aristotle, Greeks, Alexander the Great, Hunter-Gatherers, Mesopotamia, Egypt, etc.
WHAT: Societies where men have authority over women (as in the father holds control over the women and children).
WHEN: Before 10000 BCE with hunter-gatherers, (800 BC

Origins of Writing

WHO: Mesopotamians (Yellow River Civilization, Nile River Valley, Indus River Valley) and Phoenicians.
WHAT: The creation of a system of symbols that could record treaties, history, and keep records.
WHEN: First in 3500 B.C.E., layer refined in 1300 B.C.E


WHO: Mesopotamians, Hebrews.
WHAT: A people who moved from Mesopotamia to Palestine, and finally to Egypt.
WHERE: Mesopotamia, Palestine, Egypt.
WHY: Ideas of Armageddon (flood) and Yahweh, a single divine entity, later taken up by Christianity and


WHAT: A people who created a simplified alphabet of 22 letters.
WHEN: 1300 B.C.E.
WHERE: Egypt (Greek, Latin?)
WHY: Created a simplified alphabet of 22 letters that was used as the basis of Greek and Latin, as well as improved the Egyptian

Indus River Civilization

WHO: Indians (the Indus River peoples)
WHAT: A civilization sprouted in India along the Indus River, though still mysterious after its destruction.
WHEN: 2500 B.C.E.
WHERE: In modern day India, along the Indus River
WHY: Advanced; had running water in the


WHO: Indo-European Nomads (from Asia and Europe)
WHAT: Nomadic people who migrated from into India and militarized society. Implemented and influenced many things (caste system, Indian sacred text -Vedas-, and culture, etc).
WHEN: Around 1500 B.C.E.

Vedic Age (AKA Epic Age)

WHO: Aryans, Indians.
WHAT: The initial period of Aryan influence over India.
WHEN: 1500 B.C.E (to 1000 B.C.E.)
WHERE: India (Europe, the Aryans are from there).
WHY: As the initial part of the era of Aryan influence of the Indian society, this time perio

Caste System

WHO: Aryans, Indians
WHAT:A system that Aryans implemented on the indigenous "inferior" Indian people as a way to for Aryan conquerors to have relationships with the inferior Indians. Thus, they implemented a system where warriors or the governing class (


WHO: Aryans (later adopted by Indians/Hindus)
WHAT: The ancient Sanskrit text developed by the Aryans that became the earliest sacred text of Hinduism
WHEN: 1500-1200 B.C.E. (technically to 500 B.C.E, yet continuing onward).
WHERE: India (technically from

Yellow River Civilization

WHO: Chinese, Yellow River Civilization peoples.
WHAT: A civilization (developed in isolation) sprang along the Hwang He/Yellow River. Advanced in technology.
WHEN: 2000 B.C.E.
WHERE: In current-day China, along the Hwang He/Yellow River.
WHY: Isolation =

Shang Dynasty

WHO: Chinese/ Yellow River Civilization/ Shang kings
WHAT: The rule over the Yellow River Civilization by kings known as the Shang.
WHEN: 1500 B.C.E.
WHERE: China/Yellow River/Hwang He
WHY: Responsible for the construction of many tombs and palaces (a dif

Zhou Dynasty

WHO: Chinese
WHAT: The Dynasty after the Shang Dynasty for the Yellow River civilization that ruled a loose coalition of regional lords.
WHEN: 1000 B.C.E.
WHERE: China, Yellow River
WHY: History, by this time, was recorded much smoothly. Due to bad relati

Dynastic Cycle ***

WHO: Chinese
WHAT: A cycle in which Chinese Dynasties would fall and rise. How it worked goes as following: A Dynasty maintained power when it brought good to the people and provided much (good taxing, trade, improve infrastructure, etc). When the Dynasty

Mandate of Heaven

WHO: China, Chinese dynasties
WHAT: A political idea that power was granted among the chosen few to rule due to divine entities.
WHEN: During Chinese dynasties (2100 BCE to 1911 CE)
WHERE: China
WHY: The Mandate of heavan determined the dynastical cycle;

Warring States

WHO: Chinese people, Zhou kings
WHAT: After the Zhou kings passed on their power to their subordinates, royal courts never gained authority. Thus, regional princes ignored federal government and tried created separate states of power, going to war with ea


WHO: Olmec people (native Americans in southern Mexico).
WHAT: A civilization in southern Mexico that developed its own art, court system, architecture, and overall civilization independently. Had a language and numeric system.
WHEN: 1200 BCE to 400 BCE

Mayan Empire

WHO: Mayans; native Americans
WHAT: A people influenced by the Olmec Empire who developed a complex civilization in America. Developed their own forms of astronomy, Mathematics, etc. Had an agriculture based economy. Had independant city states that were


WHO: Native Americans
WHAT: A city state that housed up to about 200,000 individuals, had several religious pyramids (importantly temples of sun and moon), was the center of a trade network, and had a detailed religion. Large amounts of religious pyramids


WHO: A people of central Mexico (Native Americans)
WHAT: A people who irrigated crops, introduced gold and silver working, that depended on conquest. The warring city-states of the Toltec worshiped a violent and blood-thirsty god, however with time the pe


WHO: A native people of Southern America
WHAT: The first major urban civilization of Southern America. Economically, politically, and religiously dominant in the area.
WHEN: 900 BCE-250 BCE
WHERE: South America (capital was in the Andes mountains of Peru)

Persian Empire

WHO: Persians, Indo-European people. Cyrus the Great, Darius II
WHAT: A people that inhabited the fallen Babylon/Mesopotamian empire. Under Darius the first, the civilization was unified. The empire grew and conquered other regions, but with the conquerin

Cyrus the Great

WHO: The ruler of the Persian empire during a certain period of time.
WHAT: The ruler of the Persian empire during the time of initial state over Babylon, to its conquering of the east and west. Known for mercy and was responsible for all sorts of growth.

Darius II ***

WHO: A ruler of the Persian empire (King)
WHAT: Ruling kind of Persia when it was conquered by Greece.
WHEN: ruled from 423 to 405 BCE
WHERE: Persia
WHY: Was the ruling king of Persia when Alexander the great conquered the empire.

Zoroastrianism ***

WHO: Persians
WHAT: A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Zarathustra, that emphasizes the struggle and existence of good and evil, and the role of individuals choosing which side.
WHEN: Sixth century BCE onward
WHERE: Persia
WHY: A Persian rel

Confucius ***

WHO: A Chinese philosopher, aka Kung Fu Tzu
WHAT: A Chinese philosopher whose teachings became the religion Confucianism. Taught the importance and conduct of family, politics, morality, etc.
WHEN: Born into the Zhou dynasty, 551-449 B.C.E.
WHERE: China

Confucianism ****

WHO: Chinese, Confucious
WHAT: A religion based on the teachings of Confucius that emphasizes and conducts the way family, politics, and morality should work. Taught ancestral worship.
WHEN: 551 BCE onward.
WHERE: China
WHY: Was a basis on which Chinese d

Daoism ***

WHO: China, Lauzi/
WHAT: A religion based on the philosophy of Laozi that taught the followers to find their place in nature (doa=the way or path of nature). Taught the concept of yin-yang, the idea that one entity can't exist without its opposite.


WHO: China, Hanfeizi
WHAT: A school of philosophy that was used during the Chinese Warring states period and influenced the Qin Dynasty. Told that the only way to gain social harmony was through strict laws and absolute power. Influenced citizens to spy o

Qin Dynasty

WHO: Chinese, Qin Shi Huandi
WHAT: Following the Zhou dynasties decline and the warring states period, the nation was reunified through Legalism under the Qin power. During this time was the Mongolian invasion, so much of the great wall was built (though

Shi Huangdi

WHO: Qin Shi Huangdi, the leader of the Qin dynasty.
WHAT: The person who ruled over the Qin dynasty with autocratic (absolute) rule.
WHEN: ruled from 221 BCE to 204 BCE
WHERE: China
WHY: Using legalism to end the Warring States era, Huangdi united China

Han Dynasty

WHO: Emperor Wuti, Peasant family, Liu Bang
WHAT: Founded by Liu Bang, the Han Dynasty followed the Qin dynasty and blended Confucius ideals and legalistic basics into the a combination of their values. "Equivalent to the Roman Empire", the Han dynasty ex

Mauryan Dynasty

WHO: Indians, Chandragupta
WHAT: The first dynasty of India as a reaction to Alexander the Greats invasion and colonization of India.
WHEN: 332 B.C.E.
WHERE: India, along the Ganges River
WHY: Unified the subcontinent. Took much culture and governing idea

Gupta Dynasty

WHO: The Guptas, India
WHAT: Rule of the Gupta kings over India, after a hundred years of political instability following the collapse of the Kushan state, those who invaded and ruled India after the fall of Ashoka's Mauryan kingdom.
WHEN: 320 C.E.


WHO: Chandragupta
WHAT: A soldier who, in response to Alexander the Great's invasion of India and creation of Bactria, seized power along the Ganges River.
WHEN: 322 B.C.E.
WHERE: India, along the Ganges River
WHY: Was the first to react to Alexander the


WHO: Gautama, India, Mauryans (Ashoka)
WHAT: Gautama, who questioned the bad of the world under Hinduism, tortured his body and searched for an answer, which he, later named the Buddha, or enlightened one, would later preach. Many Hindu ideas. A religion


WHO: Prominently Indians
WHAT: A religion that instituted the caste system and was used to govern the lives and the country of India. Strict in India, purpose was to be on with the god, Brahma.
WHEN: 320 B.C.E. (Vedic and Epic Ages, around 1500-1000 BCE V

Alexander the Great

WHO: The ruler of Greece and the Hellenstic Empire.
WHAT: Alexander the Great gained power over Greece from his Father, Philip of Macedonia. Alexander led conquests into the Mediterranean and parts of Asia, conquering the states of Persia, India, and Egyp

Mycenaean ****

WHO: Greeks
WHAT: As the last phase of the bronze age in greece, The state of Mycenaean Greece was immortalized in Homer's epics about the Trojan war.
WHEN: 1400 BCE
WHERE: Greece
WHY: The last phase of Greece when it was in the Bronze age. Immortalized i


WHO: Greeks
WHAT: The Greek term for a city-state (an urban center and the agricultural territory it controls). Such states were typical in Greece in the time. Some oligarchic (council ruling), some democratic (the people ruling), etc.
WHEN: 800-400 B.C.E


WHO: Greeks, Spartans.
WHAT: One of the two city states/polis's of Greece that lead overall Greece. Sparta was the strong military aristocracy ruling slaves. Sparta and Athens were on good terms and cooperated, building colonies in the Mediterranean. Even


WHO: Greeks, Athenians, Themistocles, Pericles
WHAT: One of the two city states/polis's of Greece that lead overall Greece. Athens was the artistic and intellectual leadership state, that used slaves. Sparta and Athens were on good terms and cooperated, b

Persian War

WHO: Greeks (Mainly Athenians and Spartans) against the Persians, King Darius, King Xerxes, Themistocles.
WHAT: Two wars that was fought between the Greek polis's and the Persians. Basically, it started due to Athenian support of the state of Ionia, a sta

Peloponnesian War

WHO: Greeks (Spartans and Athenians)
WHAT: A long, drawn out war between the Greek city-states of Sparta and Athens. Athens' imperialism (conquest) and arrogance led to Spartan retaliation, and though the Athenians had a strong Navy, the Spartans prevaile

Hellenistic Empire

WHO: The Greek; Alexander the Great; (conquered empires such as Egypt, India, and Persia)
WHAT: After the Peloponnesian War, kings forom Macedonia conquered the cities and the empire. Phillip of Macedonia won the battle, and this son, Alexander the Great,

Greek Philosophy-Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

WHO: Greeks, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
WHAT: Philosophy taught by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle:
-SOCRATES: question conventional wisdom, with a base of humans improving the soul.
-PLATO: (student of Socrates) Human reasoning could approach an understan

Hellenistic Philosophies *****

WHO: Greeks
WHAT: Philosophies (Cynicism/the motivation of selfishness, Skepticism/Doubt, Epicureanism/the goal of hapiness, and Stoicism/indifference of pleasure and pain) that attracted the better educated.
WHEN: 3rd Century CE
WHERE: Greece
WHY: A set

Roman Republic

WHO: Romans
WHAT: An empire, starting out as a monarchy that got ran out by aristocrats, who conquered the rest of Italy, and later the Romans. With a strong military, the state was a hiearchy (though there was a growing lower class). Had a pait of counci

Punic Wars

WHO: Romans, Carthage people, general Hannibal
WHAT: Any of three wars between Rome and Carthage. Resulted in the destruction of Carthage and the Roman gain of Spain, Africa, Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica, etc.
WHEN: 264 BCE - 146 BCE
WHERE: Northern Africa/T

Roman Empire

WHO: Romans, Augustus Caesar
WHAT: An empire led by Augustus Caesar following the Roman Republic's assasination of Julius Caesar. Was the major power of its time, and had strong connections. In 195 CE the empire was split into two: the Western Roman Empir

Julius Caesar

WHO: Roman general/ruler of Rome
WHAT: Once the Roman Republic became too unstable, two generals fought for power, and the winner, Julius Caesar, gained it. Through a series of conquests, he mainly installed Cleopatra as queen of Egypt, and was appointed

Augustus Caesar

WHO: Roman ruler, adoptive son Julius Caesar
WHAT: The adopted son of Julius Caesar, he overcame rivalries following the death of Caesar and became the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Under his power, he rebuilt Rome, instituted art, had trade with Afr

Roman expansion

WHO: Romans
WHAT: The Expansion of the Roman power from a small city in Italy to the entire Italian peninsula, to, following the Punic Wars, Much of Europe, Africa, and Mesopotamia. Eventualy the Roman Empire split into two, the Western Roman Empire and t

Roman Roads

WHO: Romans
WHAT: Roads built by Rome (stone). Allowed for better transportation across the republic and empire.
WHEN: 500 BCE onward
WHERE: Rome/Roman territory (Europe)
WHY: The Roman roads were very important in terms of Roman transportation across the

Roman Law

WHO: Romans
WHAT: A law system based on the philosophy that a natural law system should be implemented than a man-made one. In other words, it stressed the importance of things given by the gods, such as equality, and the innocense of a man until proven g


WHO: Romans
WHAT: Pieces of property owned by rich landowners that worked slaves. Work was basically agriculture meant for export.
WHEN: 2nd century BCE
WHERE: Roman Republic/Territory.
WHY: A system of Latifundas basically were fast, cheap labor to creat

Trade in the Mediterranean ****

WHO: Romans
WHAT: Trade between the states that bordered the Mediterranean (and those of the silk road that had to go from their own state to reach the Mediterranean states).
WHEN: 509 BCE onward
WHERE: Mediterranean
WHY: Trade within the Mediterranean, w


WHO: A Jew born in the Roman Empire
WHAT: A Jewish nomad (in a sense) who traveled for three years in Roman territory teaching the ideas of peace, the dangers of attatchement to material wealth, the distinguishment between Samaritans, Jews, and Gentiles.


WHO: Christians, Middle Easterners, Asians, People of the Mediterranean, Roman Empire, Spread to most of the world eventually.
WHAT: A religion based on the teachings of Jesus (as well as adaptations of Jewish teachings, which is what Jesus taught anyways


WHO: A Roman emperor
WHAT: A Roman emperor who tried to unite his split up empire (had split up into Western Roman Empire and Easter Byzantine Empire) through the use of Christianity, legalizing it in the Roman territory. (NOTE, THE FOLLOWING MANY NOT BE


WHO: Roman Emperor
WHAT: A strong Roman emperor who had to deal with several problems (military, inflation, government finance, etc). Seeing the Roman empire as too vast, he decided split the Empire into two halves: West and East (Byzantine, which Dioclet

Silk Road

WHO: Chinese and Romans primarily (included Egyptions, Mesopotamians, Persians, Indians, etc).
WHAT: A series of trade routes that connected China with Asia and the Mediterranean, via land and sea. VERY important in terms of developement as it was respons

Fall of Roman Empire

WHO: Romans, the Huns, Visigoth, Germanic tribes, etc.
WHAT: Due to pirates (Attila and the Huns, Visigoth, etc) The trade routes of Rome were attacked and cut off. Gold and silver was spent so much by the wealthy on foreign product, that along with the s

Germanic Invaders

WHO: Germans
WHAT: Invaders who, (along with the Huns, Visigoths, Franks, Angles, Sacons, allemanni, vandals, etc.) overthrew Roman rule by destroying their finances via their trade networks. Eventually, after the fall of Rome, these people ruled the West


WHO: Central Asian people (who spoke Turkish), Atilla the Hun, Huns.
WHAT: A nomadic people who, under Atilla, the warrior-king of the Huns, led conquests that forced Germanic tribes to migrate into the Roman empire. It was due to him (and in part the Ger

Early Byzantine Empire ****

WHO: Romans (eastern)
WHAT: The Empire of Eastern Rome after Rome was split into east and west by Diocletian.
WHEN: 285 CE -1461 CE
WHERE: Rome/Europe (eastern Roman territory).
WHY: The half of Rome ruled by Diocletian after the split up of Rome. Led to