EPPP: Social and Cultural Bases of Behavior

reward power

results from holder's ability to reward others

coercive power

results from holder's ability to punish others

legitimate power

recognition of holder's valid authority in a given situation

referent power

based on attraction or desire to be liked by the holder

expert power

based on the belief that the holder has special expertise

types of power of most effective leader

expert & referent power

social facilitation

the tendency for people to perform better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when in the presence of others

social loafing

individual output declines when people are working together in a group

how to reduce/eliminate social loafing

inform participants that their individual contributions are either identifiable or uniquely necessary for the group to succeed

In terms of generating quality ideas, people working alone tend to produce...

more ideas of better quality than when brainstorming in a group.

difference between mediation & arbitration

mediation is a 3rd party intervention that occurs when individuals or groups cannot reach in an agreement; arbitration consists of a 3rd party strongly recommending or dictating a final agreement that the disputants will abide by. Arbitration has the auth

ideal goals of mediation

be a neutral party; help to identify alternative solutions; diffuse emotions

Heider's Balance Theory

humans desire consistency between attitudes & feelings toward others, & should there be inconsistency, one will seek balance by either changing their attitude - if the other person is liked- or changing their feelings toward the other person - if the othe

OVERJUSTIFICATION HYPOTHESIS

rewarding people for an enjoyable activity can undermine their interest so intrinsic motivation loses its power.

Variables related to attitude change: Communicator

More persuasive if credible & likable

Variables related to attitude change: Credibility

increases if argues against own self-interests & increases if not intentionally trying to change our views

Variables related to attitude change: Sleeper effect

Over time, we tend to forget the source of the message & just remember the message.

inoculation theory

the process of providing information prior to the presentation of an opposing party with the intent of making the people more resistant to the message that will be communicated; You are less likely to be persuaded by an argument against your opinion if yo

Variables related to attitude change: Self-Esteem

People with low self-esteem show greater attitude change after a persuasive argument

environmental psychology

the study of the effect of the physical environment on behavior

Juries with less than 12 people are...

more likely to convict a defendant due to the lower chance of the jury containing more than 1 dissenter

In a courtroom, the presentation of graphic evidence e.g., gruesome photos ...

lowers the jurors' standards of proof i.e., the amount of evidence needed to make a decision and elicits pro-prosecution biases

defendant's physical attractiveness

leads to harsher treatment when physical attractiveness was used to aid in the commission of the crime; otherwise, physically attractive criminals are generally treated with greater leniency

inadmissible evidence

evidence that cannot be considered by a judge or jury in court, e.g., evidence that was obtained by unlawful means jurors don't ignore it and tend to rely on it more

prisoner's dilemma: two involved in a crime

if one confesses & the other remains silent, the confessor receives immunity while the other receives severe punishment.
If both confess, both receive severe punishment.
If both remain silent, both receive minimal punishment.
Research shows that players t

additive tasks

An independent group task in which the contributions of all members are simply summed or pooled to form the group product e.g., envelope stuffing, pulling a rope

conjunctive tasks

Tasks for which the team's performance depends on the abilities of the team's weakest link e.g., rock climbing or relays

disjunctive tasks

Group tasks that require little coordination and that can be completed by the most skilled member working alone.e.g., team picking best player to take the penalty shot

compensatory tasks

Performance of the average member determines the group product e.g., group votes to choose a decision

7 main variables related to interpersonal attractiveness

Physical proximity
Similarity
Complimentarity
Physical Attractiveness
Self-disclosure
Reciprocity
Cost-and-benefits

Kurt Lewin developed

...Field Theory
Field = one's immediate environment

What does field theory posit?

People typically move toward goals in the field that are satisfying and away from goals that are negative and threaten their needs. Conflict occurs when forces directing one toward or away from goals are opposite in direction & about equal in strength

self-verification theory

we'd rather be right than happy

emotion-in-relationships (ERM) model

Berscheid proposes that positive and negative emotions usually arise in a relationship when one partner's behavior disconfirms the other partner's expectations e.g., husband unexpectedly cleans the house = positive emotion in the wife; wife abruptly stops

prosocial behavior increases when...

there is obvious distress & a non-ambiguous problem, if someone else has already intervened, and in rural environments; it is more common in cooperative cultures, more likely if you have siblings

types of aggression

Instrumental & hostile

instrumental aggression

behavior is means to some end e.g., wrestler attempting to win a match

hostile aggression

venting of negative emotions e.g., husband battering wife

informational conformity

when a person uses others' behavior as a source of accurate information in order to avoid making a mistake especially when the person is unsure of accuracy

normative conformity

when a person's behavior is swayed by their desire to avoid criticism & be accepted by the group

In Milgram's classic study, ___% went all the way to the fatal level

65% went all the way to the fatal level; a group of psychiatrists initially predicted only 1% would administer shocks of the highest voltage

fundamental attribution bias

People tend to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional, internal factors

actor-observer effect

people are likely to attribute their own behavior to situational, external factors

self-serving bias

One exception to the actor-observer effect is that individuals are likely to attribute their behavior to dispositional factors when the behavior has positive consequences

Crowding is experienced as less uncomfortable or stressful in ...

attention-grabbing, arousing situations than in unarousing or uninteresting situations.

C. R. Ridley presents a "typology of black client self-disclosure," which relates the willingness to self-disclose to 4 levels of "paranoia." What are the 4 levels of paranoia?

1. intercultural nonparanoic disclosure
2. functional paranoiac
3. healthy cultural paranoiac
4. confluent paranoiac

In working with an African-American client exhibiting "healthy cultural paranoia," an Anglo therapist would be best advised to...

help the client bring feelings of suspiciousness, frustration, and antipathy toward whites into conscious awareness

What is the recommendation Ridley makes for the confluent paranoiac who represents a combination of functional paranoia and healthy cultural paranoia?

place the client's behavior within the context of racism and distinguish between normal and abnormal responses within that context