Ancient Egypt

Nile

longest river in the world. Begins in the heart of Africa

Flooding

yearly basis, enriching the soil. The surplus of crops grown in Egypt

Irrigation

control of the Nile's flood water was crucial

Multiple Crops

Barley, hops, wheat

Geographic barriers

protected Egypt from invasion, deserts to the west, east, Med Sea to the north and waterfalls int he south

How is the Egyptian Society organized?

like a pyramid

In a rigid society, what status do women have?

more equal

When did Egyptians marry?

they married young

Was the husband the master?

yes

what was the wife's responsibilty?

to run thehome and educate the children

Who were the scribes?

very important, upper class boys. Trained from age 10

When did hieroglyphics emerge?

around 3000 BC

Hieratic script

a simpified version of hieroglyphics

What is the Rosetta Stone?

Key to deciphering hieroglyphics

when was Rosetta stone discovered and by whom?

Early 1800's by French scholars

Describe the human body in the Egyptian art form?

A distinctive style, human bodies were shown as a combo of profile, semi-profile and frontal views

Why was geometry developed by the Egyptians?

to be able to survey land and for building

What process helped Egyptians become experts in human anatomy?

mummification

What calendar did the Egyptians use?

Same as we do

What kind of religion did Egyptians practice?

polytheistic

what does polytheistic mean?

many gods, in Egypt they worshiped two groups, land gods and sun gods

Who is Re (Amon-Re)

the Sun God

Who is Osiris?

God of the Afterlife. Osiris is also believed to be the river Nile

Who is Isis?

Goddess of the Throne,

What is the importance of the afterlife?

just as important as life on earth

What is the purpose of the mummification process?

prepare the body for the afterlife

What was a large component of the Egyptian economy?

Large plantations of wheat, barley, flax and cotton

Who received most of the crops of the plantations?

lords or pharoah

Egypt traded excess foods to other nations via what methods?

caravans, shipping on the Nile

who is Menes?

an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt, and as the founder of the first dynasty (Dynasty I

How many pyramids are there, approx

80

What is the significance of the city of Giza?

Giza is most famous as the location of the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramid of Giza, and a number of other large pyramids and temples

Define the Old Kingdom

the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement

Middle Kingdom

between 2055 BC and 1650 BC, During this period, the funerary cult of Osiris rose to dominate Egyptian popular religion

new kingdom

also referred to as the Egyptian Empire is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC. It was Egypt's most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power.

Who was Tut

1341 BC - 1323 BC) was an Egyptian pharaoh, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. Tutankhamun was nine years old when he became pharaoh and reigned for approximately ten years. Tutankhamun was one of the few kings worshiped as a god and honored with a cult-like following during his lifetime

Who was Ramses II

referred to as Ramesses the Great, was the third Egyptian pharaoh (reigned 1279 BC - 1213 BC. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and monuments

who was Cleopatra?

Late 69 BC[1] - August 12, 30 BC) was the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, throughout their dynasty, spoke Greek and refused to speak Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone. By contrast, Cleopatra did learn to speak Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian goddess, Isis. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. After Caesar's murder, she married Marc Antony. When he committed suicide, she did also, letting an Asp bite her.