Chapter 2 Vocab - Soc

Culture

All shared products of human groups, including both physical objects and the beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by the group

Values

Shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable

Folkways

Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significance attached to them

Cultural universals

Certain features that are developed to ensure the fulfillment of some needs of society and are common to all cultures

Cultural relativism

The belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another culture

Subculture

A group that shares values, norms and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population

Society

A group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as the share a common culture and feeling of unity

Norms

The shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations

Mores

Norm that have great moral significance attached to them

Margaret Mead

In the 1930's she conducted a classical study of cultural variation

Language

The organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system

Material culture

The physical objects that people create and use

Nonmaterial culture

Abstract human creations, such as language, ideas, beliefs, rules, skills, family patterns, work practices, and political and economic systems

Counterculture

Group that rejects the values, norms, and practices or the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns

Ethnocentrism

Tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups