Corrections Study Guide T/F 1-3

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The incarceration rate of African-American males in the United States is nearly ten times that of white males.

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The Lex Talionis became part of the U.S. criminal law in the early 20th century.

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The correctional philosophy of rehabilitation fell out of favor with the general public and policy makers in the 1970s.

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Selective incapacitation is the idea that high-rate offenders can be identified and incarcerated in order to decrease the crime rate.

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Accountability is one of the key elements that are part of the balanced and restorative justice approach.

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The majority of inmates in the United States are housed in federal prisons.

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One of the key elements associated with social learning is free will.

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Research has demonstrated that a clear and convincing link between between people wit low IQs and criminal tendencies.

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Reality therapy is a form of behavior modification used in some correctional programs.

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Over the past two to three decades the mood of politicians and the general public has been toward more punishment of convicted offenders.

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During the middle ages, one of the most common punishments was forfeiture of property.

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The idea of restitution as a form of punishment is of recent origin

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A French Doctor, Joseph Guillotin, invent a device for crucifying criminals.

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The Athenian politician and magistrate named Draco made almost all offenses capital crimes.

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A wergild was a price paid by a killer's family to avoid a blood feud with the victim's family.

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In England, by the seventeenth century nearly all felonies called for capital punishment.

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Cesare Baccaria's view was that punishment would deter crimes if they were certain, swift, and severe.

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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle observed, commented on, and criticized the American prison system.

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Deterrence is the sentence goal that aims at providing assistance to offenders through a variety of treatment programs.

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The legal philosophy of equity means treating similar offenders alike, based on offenses they have committed.

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The notion of social debt incorporates recognition of the offender's criminal history into sentencing decisions.

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Criminal intent is also known as mens rea.

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Whenever a jury decides that a defendant is not guilty in spite of the evidence presented by the state because it views the law as unjust, this is known as jury nullification.

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Probation is the most common sentence imposed on criminal offenders in the U.S.

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State probation and parole boards have the responsibility for deciding who should be placed on probation.

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Juries in capital cases must take into consideration both mitigating and aggravating circumstances.

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The most recent figures show that about 11,000 people are on death row in the United States.

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Over the past 20 yers, about one-third of the people executed have been women.

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Concurrent sentences allow offenders to serve multiple sentences at the same time.

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The state of Tennessee created class X felonies in order to provide for mandatory minimum sentences for certain crimes.

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Some states use a process known as informal probation for non-adjudicated juvenile offenders.