Chapter 3- AP Art History

ashlar masonry

carefully cut and regularly shaped blocks of stone used in construction, fitted together without mortar (ex: pyramids)

atlantid

a male figure that functions as a supporting column. see also caryatid

axial plan

the horizontal arrangement of the parts of a building or of the buildings and streets of a city or town, or a drawing or diagram showing such an arrangement. in an axial plan, the parts of a building are organized longitudianlly, or along a given axis; in

ben-ben

a pyramidal stone; a fetish of the egpytian god Re.

block statue

in ancient egyptian sculpture, a cubic stone image with simplified body parts

canon

a rule, for example, of proportion. the ancient greeks considered beauty to be a matter of "correct" proportion and sought a canon of proportion, for the human figure and for buildings

capital

the uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel. in classical architecture, the form of the capital varies with the order

caryatid

a female figure that functions as a supporting column. see also atlantid

clerestory

the fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. the oldest known clerestories are egyptian. in roman basilicas and medieval churches, clerestories are the windows that form the nave's uppermost level below the timber ceil

colonnade

a series or row of columns, usually spanned by lintels

column

a vertical, weight-carrying architectural member, circular in cross-section and consisting of a base (sometimes omitted), a shaft, and a capital

course

in masonry construction, a horizontal row of stone blocks

engaged column

a half-round column attached to a wall. see also pilaster.

flute (or fluting)

vertical channeling, roughly semicircular in cross-section and used principally on columns and pilasters

hieroglyphic

a system of writing using symbols or pictures

hypostyle hall

a hall with a roof supported by columns

ka

in ancient egypt, the immortal human life force

mastaba

arabic, "bench." an ancient egyptian rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft

mortuary temple

in egyptian architecture, a temple erected for the worship of a deceased pharoah

mummification

a technique used by ancient egyptians to preserve human bodies so that they may serve as the eternal home of the immortal ka

necropolis

greek, "city of the dead." a large burial area or cemetery

nemes

in ancient egypt, the linen headdress worn by the pharaoh, with the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front

palette

a thin board with a thumb hole at one end on which an artist lays and mixes colors; any surface so used. also, the colors or kinds of colors characteristically used by an artist. in ancient egypt, a slate slab used for preparing makeup

papyrus

a plant native to egypt and adjacent lands used to make paperlike writing material; also, the material or any writing on it

pharaoh

an ancient egyptian king

pylon

the wide entrance gateway of an egyptian temple, characterized by its sloping walls

serdab

a small concealed chamber in an egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased

sphinx

a mythical egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human

sunken relief

in sculpture, figures projecting from a background of which they are part. the degree of relief is designated high, low (bas), or sunken. in the last, the artist cuts the design into the surface so that the highest projecting parts of the image are no hig

uraeus

an egyptian cobra; one of the emblems of pharaonic kingship

valley temple

the temple closest to the nile river associated with each of the great pyramids at gizeh in ancient egypt