Intro to Occupational Therapy Test #1 (Ch 1-4)

Phillippe Pinel

moral-treatment", starting with WORK TREATMENT

William Tuke

moral-treatment", founded YORK RETREAT, treated patients more like "family

Benjamin Rush

first man to institute "moral treatment" in US

Herbert Hall

went to Harvard, WORK CURE

George Barton

suffered from TB, etc, one of founders of ARTS AND CRAFTS, architect, went to N created CONSOLATION HOUSE in Clifton Springs, NY

William Rush Dunton, Jr

FATHER OF OT, published Occupational Therapy: A Manual for Nurses in 1915

Eleanor Clarke Slagle

MOTHER OF OT, credited with HABIT TRAINING, helped organize first professional OT school, her home was UNOFFICIAL headquarters for very first AOTA

Susan Tracy

nurse, credited for arts and crafts, wrote FIRST KNOWN written OT book - Studies in Invalid Occupations

Thomas Kidner

architect, OT in VOCATIONAL rehab, TB clinics

Adolf Meyer

HOLISTIC approach

National Society for Promotion of OT

formal birth in 1917 (pre AOTA)

What were OTs called during WWI?

reconstruction aids

National Society for Promotion of OT became AOTA in _______?

1921

AMA assumed inspection and accredidation of OT schools in ______. ___ schools were accredited.

1938; 5

During WWII, OT program took __________.

18 months

Rehab Movement

from 1942-1960

Medicare started up in __________.

1965

When was the first Associate's degree in OT offered? Where was the program?

1965; Pennsylvania

Rehabilitation Act of 1973

mandated if you had a disability, you must be given treatment

Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975

right of all children to free and appropriate education regardless of handcapping condition

Handicapped Infants and Toddlers Act

passed in 1986 as amendment to Education for All Handicapped Children Act, CHILDREN FROM BIRTH TO 5 YEARS OF AGE

When did states develop specific laws for OT?

in the 70s, states required licensure for OT

When was the OT certification exam created?

1977 - many states used it for licensure requirements

ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)

1990, equal rights for disabled persons

IDEA - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

1991, stated any STUDENT with a disability has the right to treatment and education

PPS - Prospective Payment System

fixed payment scale/schedule based o your DRG, effected Medicare Part A, resulted in shorter hospital stays

Balanced Budget Act

1997 set a cap on Medicare Part B patients

Personality traits of OT practitioners

desire to help others, genuinely like people, able to relate to both individuals and small groups, appreciate diversity and value people's ability to change

Rehab setting

provide longer-term care (than acute) and intensive therapy from a VARIETY of professionals

Preparatory Activities

help get the client ready for purposeful activity (i.e. ROM, exercise, strengthening, or stretching)

Contrived Activities

made-up activities that may include some of the same skills required for the occupation (tying shoes on a doll before actually tying ones own shoes)

Purposeful Activities

generally meaningful to the client but may be ONE task of the occupation, purposeful activities have an end product and involve allowing the client to have a choice (making a sandwich is only one part of making lunch)

Occupation-Centered/Based Activities

performed in a natural setting and patients retain skills better and are more motivated when performing the actual occupation (preparing lunch at home at noon in ones own kitchen)

Moral Treatment

grounded in philosophy that all people, even the most challenged, are entitled to consideration and human compassion

Philosophical Base

essentially that man is an ACTIVE being whose development is influenced by the use of PURPOSEFUL activity; ADAPTATION

Metaphysical component

What is the nature of man?

Epistemology component

the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge" "How do we know what we know?

Axiology component

questions of ethics "what are the standards and rules of right conduct?" and aesthetics "what is beautiful and desirable?

Holistic approach

ADOLF MEYER, views the person as a WHOLE

Reductionistic approach

body is reduced to separately functioning body parts

VALUES OF OT

altruism, equality, freedom, justice, dignity, truth, and prudence

altruism

unselfish concern for the welfare of others

equality

treat all people eqally and with an attitude of fairness and respect each person's beliefs/values/lifestyles

freedom

individuals right to exercise choice and to demonstrate independence, initiative, and self direction

justice

need for all OT practitioners to abide by the law that governs the practice and respect legal rights of the patient

dignity

valuing the uniqueness of each individual through empathy and respect

truth

demonstrated through behavior that is honest, accountable, and accurate

prudence

ability to demonstrate sound judgement, care, and discretion

Centennial Vision

We envision that occupational therapy is a powerful, widely recognized, science-driven, and EVIDENCE-BASED profession with a globally connected and diverse workforce meeting society's occupational needs.

Emerging areas of practice

1. Aging in place 2. Driver assessments and training programs 3. Community health and wellness 4. Needs of children and youth 5. Ergonomics consulting 6. Technology and assistive-device developing and consulting

Evidence-based practice

(educational trends) basing practice on the best available research

Participatory research

(educational trends in research) involves the clinician, client, and faculty member in the research process, and it often results in relevant research

Goal of OT intervention

end toward which effort is directed

What is occupation?

activities we engage in EVERY DAY

Areas of performance

ADL, IADL, education, work, play, leisure, and social participation

What type of setting would you find OT immediately after trauma?

Acute setting

Occupational Therapy definition

goal-directed activity that promotes independence in function

OT role in driver training

evaluates and intervenes in physical, social, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects of functioning that affect driving skills. May consult with technology specialists or mechanics on adapting vehicles to help clients with disabilities

Multi-disciplinary

multiple therapists/people treating SAME patient