pathophysiology chapter 2

Wet gangrene

develops when neutrophils invade the site; liquefactive necrosis; occurs usually in internal organs.

Vacuolation

occurs when oxygen is not restored; formation of vacuoles or cytoplasmic small cavity.

Urate

major end product of purine catabolism due to the absence of the urate oxidase enzyme.

Ubiquintin-proteosome

primary pathway of protein catabolism

Tattooing

results from fragments of burning or unburned pieces of gun powder striking the skin

Suffocation

oxygen failing to reach the blood caused by lack of O2 in environment or blockage of airways.

Subdural hematoma

collection of blood between the inner surface of the dura mater and brain; results for sheering of small veins.

Strangulation

caused by the compression and closure of blood vessels & air passages resulting from pressure on the neck.

STtab wound

penetrating sharp force injury that is deeper than it is long.

Somatic mutation hypothesis

..., proposes aging is the result of DNA damage, inefficiency of repair, and loss of integrity of DNA synthesis

Somatic death

death of the entire person.

Social (street) drugs

..., Meth, cocaine, heroin

Shared exit wound

occurs when something is pushing up against the exit site (clothes) causing rubbing & scraping around the exit defect.

Sarcopenia

the loss of muscle mass and strength occuring into old age.

Rigor mortis

muscle stiffening caused by acidic accumulation in the muscles; interferes with the detachment of myosin from actin.

Reversible injury

the recovery of injured cells

Refefusion (reoxygenation) injury

occurs when there is a resoration of oxygen (read pg 54 for more info)

Pyknosis

process in which some cells in the nucleus shrink to become a small, dense, mass of genetic material.

Puncture wound

caused by intruments or objects with sharp points but no sharp edges; foot stepping on nail.

Psammoma body

several layers of calcium salt granules that clump together, resembling grains of sand.

Postmortem change

diffuse and does not involve components of the inflammatory response; eliminates difficulty in determining death.

Physiologic atrophy

occurs with early development; i.e. thymus gland during childhood.

Noise

sound that has potential to inflict bodily harm; most common effect is hearing impairment.

pathologic hyperplasia

..., caused by excessive hormonal stimulation or by viruses

Portmortem autolysis

abnormal proliferation of normal cells occuring as a response to excessive hormone stimulation.

Neuroendocrine theory

..., the brain and hormones that regulate the biological clock eventually "shut off" and homeostatic failure occurs

Necrosis

sum of cellular changes after local cell deaths, the process of cellular lysis, provokes inflammation in tissues.

Muzzle imprint

created when areas of thick skin are driven back into the barrel producing a patterned abrasion mirroring the muzzle.

Metastatic calcification

consists of mineral deposits that occur in normal tissues as a result of excess calcium in the blood.

Metaplasia

the reversible replacement of one mature cell by another, sometimes less differentiated cell type.

Melanin

accumulates in epithelial cells of the skin and retina; protects skin against long exposure to sun; prevents skin cancer.

Maximal life span

between 80 and 100 years; does not vary significantly among populations.

Manual strangulation

variable amounts of external trauma to the neck are seen; severe internal damage.

Livor mortis

purple discoloration caused by gravity settling blood in the lowest tissues.

Liquefactive necrosis

commonly results from ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells; also results from bacterial infections.

Lipofuscin

yellow-brown age pigment; accumulates in liver, myocardial, and atrophic cells.

Lipid-acceptor protein (appoprotein)

apoprotein; normally bond with tryglicerides to form lipoproteins which transport out of the cell.

Lipid peroxidation

destruction of unsaturated fatty acids

Ligature strangualtion

...

Life expectancy

average number of years of life remaining at a given age.

lead

heavy metal ubiquitous in the environment.

laceration

tear or rip resulting when the tensile strength of the skin or tissue is exceeded.

Karyorrhexis

fragmentation of the nucleus into smaller particles; "nuclear dust.

Karyolysis

nuclear dissolution and lysis of chromatin from the action of hydrolytic enzymes.

Ischemia

most common cause of hypoxia; reduced blood supply.

Irreversible injury

death of injured cells.

Ionizing radiation

any form of radiation capable of removig orbital electrons from atoms; positive ionized atoms & neg free electrons.

Intermediate range entrance wound

surrounded by gun powder, tattooing, or stippling.

Abrasion

...results from the removal of the superficial layer of the skin cause by friction between skin and object.

Algor Mortis

...postmortem reduction of body temperature.

Anoxia

...total loss of oxygen cause by sudden obstruction.

Apoptosis

...cell death; cellular self-destruction

Asphyxial injury

...failure of cells to receive or use oxygen.

Atrophy

...decrease or shrinkage in cellular size; common in skeletal muscle, the heart, secondary sex organs, and brain.

Atypical hyperpasoa

...another name for dysplasia because it is not a true adaptive process.

Autophagic vacuole

...membrane-bound containing cellular debris & hydrolytic enzymes-prevent uncontrolled cellular destruction.

Avulsion

...extreme laceration; wide area of tissue may be pulled away, creating a flap.

Bilirubin

...normal yellow to green pigment of bile derived from the porphyrin structure of hemoglobin; excess causes jaundice.

Blast injury

...caused by sudden increase or decrease in atmospheric pressure; transmitted by air or water.

Blunt force injury

...result of the application of mechanical energy to the body resulting in tearing, shearing, or crushing of tissues.

Carbon Monoxide

...odorless, colorless, and undetectable gas produce by the incomplete combustion of fuels.

Carboxylhemoglobin

...is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin that forms in red blood cells.

Caseous necrosis

...caused by tuburculosis pulmonary infection; combo of liquefactive and coagulative; dead cells degenerate.

Catastrophic theory

..., states the presence of errors in the enzymes involved in transcription and translation leads to an increase in errors and to the death of the cell

Cellular accumulation

infiltraion; occur as a result of sublethal cell injury & normal but inefficient cell function. (fluids, lipids, glycogen, etc.)
...

Cellular swelling

...most common degenerate change; cause by shift of extracellular water into the cells.

Chemical asphyxiant

...prevent the delivery of O2 or blocks the use. (carbon monoxide most common)

Chocking asphyxiation

...

Chopping wound

caused by heavy edged instruments with a sharp blunt force. (axe, hatchet, propeller)
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Coagulative necrosis

occurs primarily in the kidney, heart, & adrenal glands; results from hypoxia; caused by protein denaturation.
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Compensatory hyperplasia

...adaptive mechanism that enables certain organs to regenerate.

Contact range entrance wound

...occur when the gun is held so the muzzle rests or presses on the skin surface.

Contusion (Bruise)

...bleeding into the skin or underlying tissues caused by a blow that squeezes or crushes the soft tissues.

Cyanide

...combines with the ferric iron atom to block the intracellular usage of oxygen.

Decompression sickness (the bends)

...Caisson disease; occurs when divers return to the surface too quickly; gas embolism.

Drowning

...alteration of oxygen to tissues resulting from breathing in fluid.

Dry gangrene

...usually the result of coagulation necrosis; skin is dry and shrinks, changing to dark brown or black color.

Dysplasia

...abnormal changes in size shape and organization of mature cells.

Dystrophic calcification

...calcification of dying and dead tissues; occurs in lungs, lymph nodes, arteries, and injured heart valves.

Entrance wound

...appearance affected by the range of fire.

Epidural hematoma

...collection of blood between the inner surface of the skull and the dura; caused by torn artery.

Ethanol

...aka alcohol, is the number one mood altering drug. (see pg 59 for more info)

Exit wound

...where the bullet comes out; all have same general appearance.

Fat necrosis

...occurs in breast, pancreas, and abdominal structures; cellular dissolution caused by the enzyme lipase.

Fat-free mass FFM

...all minerals, proteins, water plus all other constituents not including lipids; increases with age.

Fatty change

intracellular lipid accumulation; most commonly seen in liver cells.

Fetal alcohol syndrome

...effect of prenatal alcohol exposure; leads to growth retardation, cognitive impairment, facial anomities, etc.

Free radical

electrically uncharged arom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron.

Gengrenous necrosis

...electrically uncharged arom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron.

Gas Gangrene

...caused by infection of injured tissue by species of Clostridium; bacteria creates enzyme that destroys tissues.

Hanging strangulation

...noose is placed around the neck; body weight used to constrict the noose.

Hematoma

...collection of blood in soft tissues or an enclosed space.

Hemoprotein

among the most essential of endogenous pigments; hemoglobin & oxidative enzymes.
...

Hemosiderin

yellow-brown pigment derived from hemoglobin; accumulates due to excess iron.
...

Hemosiderosis

...condition in which excess iron is stored as hemosiderin; common in those who have had blood transfusions.

Hepatocye growth factor

protein thought to be a mediator in vitro of liver regeneration.
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Hormonal Hyperlasia

occurs chiefly in estrogen-dependent organs; uterus and breast.
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Hydrogen Sulfide sewer gas

chemical asphyxiant causing victims to have brown-tinged blood.
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Hydropic

..., dropsical; thirsty

Hyperglycemia

excessive glucose in the blood; caused by excessive carb intake leading to obesity.
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Hyperlipidemia

...increase in lipoproteins in the blood results in deposits of fat in the heart, liver, and muscle.

Hyperplasia

...increase in the number of cells due to the increase in the rate of cellular division.

Hyperyhermic injury

...injury caused by excessive heat; common & varies depending on the nature, intensity, and extent of the injury.

Hypertrophy

increase in the size of the cell and the affected organ. (heart and kidney)
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Hypolipidemia

...lipid deficiency; body compensates by mobilizing fatty acids leading to increase in keotene bodies. (dehydration)

Hypothermic injury

...caused by the chilling or freezing of cells; attributed to disturbance in ion balance or homeostasis.

Hypoxia

...body is deprived of an adequate oxygen supply.

Incised wound

cut that is longer than it is deep; straight or jagged.
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Indeterminate range entrance wound

...occurs when flame soot, or gunpowder doesn't reach the skin surface, only the bullet does.

Intermediate range entrance wound

...surrounded by gun powder, tattooing, or stippling.

Ionizing radiation

...any form of radiation capable of removig orbital electrons from atoms; positive ionized atoms & neg free electrons.

Irreversible injury

...death of injured cells.

Ischemia

...most common cause of hypoxia; reduced blood supply.

Karyolysis

nuclear dissolution and lysis of chromatin from the action of hydrolytic enzymes.
...

Indeterminate-range (distant) entrance wound

occurs when flame soot, or gunpowder doesn't reach the skin surface, only the bullet does.

Blow back

occurs when areas with a thin layer of skin covers the bone creating a large, gaping, and jagged wound. (head)

Callus

thickening of the skin due to hyperplasia of epidermal cells in response to a mechanical stimulus.

Caspase ^^^

family of aspartic acid-specific protease; protein that is cut up by enzymes.

Frailty

wasting syndrome of aging; vulnerable to falls, functional decline, disease, and death.

Heat cramp

cramping of voluntary muscles as a result of vigorous exercise; salt and water loss due to sweating.

Heat exhaustion

sufficent salt and water loss results in hemoconcentration; feel weak, nauseated, and may collapse.

Heat stroke

life-threatening; core temp rises, peripheral vasodialation, and decreased circulating blood volume.

Mechanoporation

disruption of cell membranes which is central to biological progression; leads to cell death.

Oncosis (vacuolar) degeneration

organ increases in weight becoming distended and pale.

Oxidative stress

injury induced by free radicals (ROS); occurs when ROS overwhelms endogenous antioxident systems.

Pathologic atrophy

occurs with early development; i.e. thymus gland during childhood.

Pathologic hyperplasia

abnormal proliferation of normal cells occuring as a response to excessive hormone stimulation.

Postmortem autolysis

release of enzymes and lytic dissolution on a microscopic level.

Stippling

results when fragments of powder have enough force to abrade the skin but not puncture it.

Up-regulation of proteasome

prtoein degrading complex; characteristic of atrophic muscle changes.