HOTA standard 2


a form of government were the supreme power is with the people


a state or nation where the ruler is not a monarch or another who rules by birth


a state or nation where the supreme power rests with the monarch

Limited Government

a type of government where its power and functions are restricted and regulated by law

Magna Carta

the "great charter" of English liberties, forced on King John by barons in 1215

English Bill of Rights

bill passed by Parliment in 1689 which gave certain rights to all people

John Locke

English philospher who came up with many ideas that formed the basis of the Constitution

natural rights

a political theory that all individuals have the same basic rights granted them by God or nature

social contract theory

republican theory in which people give up some rights to the government in order to preserve order


commercialism, gain wealth through exports and less imports

The French and Indian War

a series of wars between the British and the French, along with thier indian allies

Proclamation of 1763

law passed at the end of the French and Indian War that prevented colonists from settling west of the Apalachin mountians

Quarting Act

law passed in 1765 that forced the colonists to provide the basic needs for the British troops stationed in America

Stamp Act

passed in 1765, placed a tax on all documents, when paid documents would receive a stamp

No Taxation Without Representation

colonists rally cry, believed since they had no representative in Parliament to speak for them that they should not be taxed

Declaratory Act

law passed in 1766 after Stamp Act was repealed, gave Parliament the power to govern and make taxes for the colonies

Townshend Acts

new series of laws that passed taxes on paint, lead, paper,tea, and glass

Boston Tea Party

1776 - Boston colonists dressed as Indians boarded three ships in Boston Harbor and dumped several hundred chests of tea into the harbor in retaliation for the tax on tea

Coercive Acts

Series of laws passed to punish Mass. for the Boston Tea Party - also known as intolerable acts

Intolerable Acts

coercive acts - series of laws passes to punish Mass. for Boston tea party, included closing Boston

First Continental Congress

collection fo delegates from all colonies except GA, met in 1774 to decide response to Intolerable Acts

Second Continental Congress

convention of representatives from all colonies that met in 1775, after shots of Revolution, that managed the war effort

Declaration of Independance

the document signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776 that declared the colonies free from the rule of England

George Washington

United States political leader and general who later became the first President of the country

The Battle of Saratoga

Battle of the American Revolution taking place in New York colony in 1777 where British troops surrendered to American troops - later causing France and Spain to wage war on Britian

Battle of Yorktown

1781 battle between the American, their French allies, against the British were the Americans again won


belief in the equality of all people

State Constitutions

documents that after the revolution took the place of the royal charters

French Revolution

revolution that began in 1789 to overthrow the absolute monarchy

Articles of the Confederation

type of "first Constitution" drafted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War

Shay's Rebellion

an armed uprising in Massachusettes of poor farmers angered by the rising taxes

the virginia Plan

idea proposed by James Madison at the Philedelphia convention that coined the idea of representation for states based on population

New Jersey Plan

plan proposed in response to the virgina plan for a government with equal representation so all states had equal representation

the Great Compromise

plan accepted in 1787 that was a combination of the Virginia and the New Jersey plans, proposed a bi-cameral legislature with one based on population and the other house of equal representation

3/5 Compromise

compromise reached between Northern and Southern states at the Philidelphia Convention were 3/5 of the population of slaves would be counted when determining the population of a state

Slave trade Compromise

made in 1787 - slave trade would continue for 20 years after and then national government could ban

Bill of Rights

collection of the first ten amendments to the Constitution proposed in 1789 that guaranteed basic rights and liberties


member of the Federalist political party


supporter of the anti-federalist political party

Strict Interpretation

belief in the fact that the federal government has only the powers specifically granted it by the constitution

Loose Interpretation

the belief in the fact that the federal government has all the powers on specifically denied it by the Constitution

Federalist Papers

series of essays supporting the ratification of the US Constitution written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay

Alexander Hamilton

one of the lesser known founding fathers who later served as the first Secretary of the Treasury

Thomas Jefferson

third President of the US, clashed with Hamilton, strong believer in human rights, main drafter of Declaration of Independance

Whiskey Rebellion

uprising in Pennsylvania in 1794 due to high tax on whiskey

Political Parties

political organization that seeks to hold power in a government and supports certain views


founded in 1792, also known as the Jefferson-Republican party, opposed the Federalist Party

Naturalization Act

passed in 1798, increased the amount of time it took for immigrants to become citizens from five to fourteen years, later repeled

Alien Act

gave federal government authority to deport aliens that threatened national security

Sedition Act

law that forbid the unloyal or bad talk about the US

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

political statements where VIrginia and Kentucky refused to abide by the Alien and Sedition Acts since they believed them to be unconstitutional

Doctrine of Nullification

stated that individual states had the right to declare null and void laws that were unconstitutional

Popular Soveignty

allowed settlers to decide if their territories would be slave or free

Separation of Powers

legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government are kept separate so each can check the other and prevent abuse of power

Checks and Balances

system like separation of power where each branch can check the others from getting too powerful


being in favor of a strong central government

Delegated Powers

the powers of Congress expressly given in the Constitution

Reserved Powers

powers reserved for the people, not the federal government

Concurrent Powers

powers held by both the state and federal govenment

Article 1

part of the Constitution, states the powers of Congress

Article 2

part of the Constitution, creates and gives the executive branch of the federal government it's power

Article 3

creates and gives power to the judicial branch of the federal govenment

House of Representatives

lower part of the Legislative Branch of the Federal government


the higher part of the Legislative Branch of the Federal government

Electoral College

group of people who elect the President


to challenge the honesty of an elected official

Judiciary Act of 1789

created lower courts under the Supreme Court

Midnight Judges

all judges appointed in a single Act by John Adams were given this name because he appointed them late the night before his predecessor came into office

Marbury v. Madisn

court case that enables Supreme Court to veto acts of Congress that were un constitutional