Body Structure

chromatin

Structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins

chromosome

Threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes

cytoplasm

Jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissoved gases and nutrients

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenver the cell divides

diaphragm

Muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

metabolism

Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism

organelle

Cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion).

pathology

Study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development and consequences.

peristalsis

Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward.

Levels of organization

CellTissueOrganSystemOrganism

Body Systems

GastrointestinalReproductiveRespiratoryUrinaryCardiovascular

Planes of the Body

1. Midsagittal (median) - right & left halves2. Coronal (frontal) - anterior (ventral) & posterior (dorsal)3. Transverse (horizontal) - superior (upper) & inferior (lower)

Body Cavities

1. Dorsal (posterior), including the cranial and spinal cavities2. Ventral (anterior), including the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

Major organ in the CRANIAL cavity

Brain

Major Organ in the SPINAL cavity

Spinal cord

Major organs in the THORACIC cavity

Heart, lungs and associated structures

Major organs in the ABDOMINOPELVIC cavity

Digestive, excretory and reproductive organs and structures

Quadrants of the body

1. Right upper (RUQ)2. Left upper (LUQ)3. Right lower (RLQ)4. Left lower (LLQ)

Major structures in the RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT

Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines

Major structures of the LEFT UPPER QUADRANT

Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines.

Major structures in the RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT

Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter

Major structures in the LEFT LOWER QUADRANT

Part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter

Divisions of the spine

Cervical (neck)Thoracic (chest)Lumbar (loin)Sacral (lower back)Coccyx (tailbone)

Nine abdominopelvic regions

Left hypochondriac Epigastric Right hypochondriacLeft lumbar Umbilical Right LumbarLeft inguinal (iliac) Hypogatric Right inguinal (iliac)