SGU physio autonomic NS

ANS regulates?

internal organs and adapts them to the need of the moment

Internal Milieu?

chemical parameters (pH,O2,CO2)Physical parameters (blood pressure, temperature)

How are the ANS and the SNS separated?

In the PNS they are almost entirely separatedIn the CNS they are intimately connected

Divisions of the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic division "Fight or Flight"Parasympathetic division "Regeneration

Sympatheticus ______ and the Parasympatheticus _______

speeds up, slows down

Constricts Pupils

Para

dilates pupils

sym

stimulates salivation

para

inhibits salivation

sym

slows heartbeat

para

increases heart activity

sym

constricts airways

para

constricts blood vessels

sym

stimulates digestion

para

contracts smooth muscle

sym

contracts ureter

para

liver:stimulates glucose production and release

sym

pancreas,gall bladder: stimulates release of bile

sym

Distal large intestine:increase tonus, relaxes sphincter

para

stimulates sweat glands

sym

contracts urinary bladder, relaxes sphincter

para

stimulates penile errection

para

stimulates sweat glands

sym

adrenal medulla:secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine

sym

relaxes urinary bladder

sym

stimulates ejaculation

sym

Primary parasympathetic neurotransmitters for preganglionic receptors and postganglionic receptors

acethylcholine for both preganglionic and postganglionic receptors

What is the preganglionic parasympathetic receptor called?

cholinergic

what is the postganglionic neuron receptor called?

cholinergic

nicotine mimics what neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

muscarine mimics what neurotransmitter?

acetylcholine

Where are muscarine receptors located?

all postganglionic parasympathetic neurons and cholinergic sympathetic neurons

Where are nicotine receptors located?

all preganglionic: sympathetic and parasympathetic neuronsmotor endplates synapses of skeletal muscle

Parasympathomimetic agents and therapy

Nicotene: therapies;emectica, stomach wash-out, artificial respiration, cardiovascular agents, muscle relaxant agents Muscarine: therapies; atropine

Parasympatholytic agents

AtropineCurarine

Atropine action,

blocks muscarinic receptors, extremely high doses block nicotinic receptors

Atropine pharmacologic effects

tachycardia, relaxation of GI tract, dilation of bronchioles, madras's, anhydrotic effect on glands

Atropine clinical uses

preanaestic medication: prevents bradycardia

Atropine toxicity

interspecies variation:herbivores are generally more resistant than carnivores

Curarine agents action

prevents the depolarization of postsynaptic membrane of the motor end plate MUSCLE PARALYSIS

Why can you meat poisoned by Curare

poor resorption of curarine

Curarine

clinical use derivates of curarine used as peripheral muscle relaxant in intravenous anesthesia

What kind of receptors do the preganglionic neuron have? postganglionic?

cholinergic, adrenergic (some cholinergic)

Adrenergic receptors bind

norepinephrine and epinephrine

Adrenergic receptor classifications

alpha and beta

How many kinds of alpha receptors?Beta receptors?

2 alpha, 3 beta

Norepinephrine binds better to ______?

alpha receptors

Epinephrine binds better to ________

Beta receptors

Sympathomimetic agents

epinephrineamphetamine

Epinephrine clinical significance

adjuvents to local anaesthetics (constriction of bloodvessels which in turn extends the duration of local anaesthesia)

Amphetamine action

pronounced stimulation of the CNS (alertness, euphoria, loss of fatigue)peripheral alpha and beta effects (similar to norepinephrine)effects diminish after repeated application abuse as doping agent(habit formation)

Sympatholytic agents

alpha blockersbeta blockers

alpha blocker clinical use

treatment of peripheral vasospasm

beta blocker types

selective B1, B2, or B3non-selective B1,B2, and B3

Beta 1 blocker (atenolol)

Heart: prophylaxis and agina pectoris, arrhythmias