Chapter 3

Define tissue?

Groups of specialized cells and cell products performing a limited number of functions.

Name the four primary tissue types?

EpiltheliaConnectiveMuscularNervous

What is the purpose of the Epithelia tissue?

Cover exposed surfaces (provide physical protection)Line internal passageways and chambers Produce glandular secretionsControl permeabilityProvide sensation

What is the purpose of Connective tissue?

Fill internal spacesProvide structural supportStore energy

What is the purpose of Muscle tissue?

Contracts and provides active movement

What is the purpose of Neural tissue?

Conducts electrical impulsesCarries information

Define glands?

Secretory structures derived from epithelia

Name three specializations of Epithelial cells?

MicrovilliStereociliaCilia

Describe 6 characteristics of Epithelial Tissue?

Cells are bound tightly together by cell junctions Always has a free (apical) surfaceBound to basement membrance (Basal Lamina)Avascular Arranged into sheets and layers (one or more)Regeneration (division of geminative (stem) cells)

What maintains the integrity of the epithelium?

Intercellular connectionsAttachment to basal lamina. (lamina lucida (clear layer), lamina densa (reticular layer)Maintenance and renewal is self perpetuated by germinative cells (stem cells)

Name and describe the two layers of epithelia

Simple-only one layerStratified-more then one layer

Name the different shapes of the epithelia

SquamousCubodialColumnar

Describe the characteristics, and functions of simple squamous ep.?

DelicateSecretes serous fluid (protects by reducing friction)Lines internal cavities; blood vesselsGas exchnge

Describe the characteristics of stratified squamous epithelial?

Series of flat layersProtects against stressLocated where there is wear and tear(skin, mouth, esophagus, rectum, vagina)

Describe the characteristics of simple cubodial epithelial? What it is used for?

Forms tubes and ductsSecretion and absorption

Where can Transitional epithelium be found, what is it's function?

Only in the urinary tractAllows for stretching of the bladder as it fills

Describe the characteristics of simple columnar epithelium? What is it's function?

Lines the digestive tractAbsorption and secretion

What are the two modifications to the simple columnar epithelium that aid in absorption and secretion?

Dense microvilliGoblet cells

Where is simple columnar epithelium found?

Lining of the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterine tubes, and collecting ducts of the kidneys

Where can psuedostratifed columnar epithelium be found?

Lining of the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi; portions of the male reproductive tract

Describe exocrine glands? What are some of it's secretions?

�Secretes into a duct or onto their apical surface (e.g.skin)�Secretion e.g. mucus, sweat,oil, saliva, liver bile, digestive/pancreatic enzymes, milk, perspiration

Describe endocrine glands?

�Secrete hormones�Ductless

Name some characteristics of connective tissue?

Found throughout the body � never exposed to outsideenvironmentGreat diversity of function &appearance - bone, fat, bloodConnective tissue mostly matrix

All connective tissues have what three main components?

1.Special cells 2.Extracellular protein fibers3.Ground substance

Define Matrix as it relates to connective tissue?

Term for the extracellular component of any connective tissue that is made up of the protein fibers and the ground substance.

Name six functions of connective tissue?

1.Establishing the structural framework of the body.2.Transporting fluid and dissolved materials.3.Protecting organs4.Supporting, surrounding, and connecting other tissues.5.Storing energy.6.Defending the body from microorganisms.

Name the fixed cells?

FibroblastsFibrocytesMixed macrophagesAdipocytesMesenchymal cellsMelanocytes

Name the wandering cells?

Free macrophagesMast cellsLymphocytesNeutrophilseosinophils

Name the fibers of connective tissue proper?

Collagen fibersRecticular fibersElastic fibers

Describe the look, characteristic and function of collagen fibers?

long, straight, unbranchedStrongest; most common fibersCylindrical fibers made up of three subunits coiled around one another.

What do recticular fibers look like? What's their characteristic?

A single unit of collagen proteinsThin; branched frameworkTough but flexible

What is the characteristic and look of Elastic fibers?

Contain the protein elastinBranching & wavyStretch & recoil

What type of tissue is Areolar? Where is it found?

Loose connective tissueWithin and deep to the dermis of skin, and covered by epithelial lining of the digestive, respiratory tractand urinary tract; between muscle; between muscles;around blood vessels, nerves, and around joints

Where is the location and what is the function of Adipose tissue?

Deep to the skin, especially at the sides,Buttock, breast; padding around eyes and kidneysProvides cushion and padding, shocks,Insulates (reduces heat loss) stores energy

What is the location and function of reticular tissue?

Liver, kidney,spleen, lymph nodesAnd bone marrowProvides supporting framework

What is the characteristic of dense regular connective tissue? What is made of dense connective tissue?

Straight, parelleTendons (collagen fiber, connects bone-muscle)AponeurosesElastic tissue (vertibrae-vertibrae)Ligaments (collagen fiber, bone-bone)

Describe dense connective tissue? What is made of dense irregular tissue?

Coming from all directionsDermisCovers bones and cartilageCapsules of organs

Describe the function of dense regular connective tissue?

Provides firm attachment; conductspull of muscles; reduces friction between muscles; stabilizes relativepositions of bones

Where is the location of dense irregular connective tissue?

Capsules of visceral organs;Periostea and perichondria;Nerve and muscle sheaths; dermis

What is the function of dense irregular connective tissue?

Provides strength to resist forcesApplied from many directions; helpsPrevent overexpansion of organs such As the urinary bladder

Name the two fluid connective tissues?

Blood: has a matrix called plasmaVarious types of formed elementsLymph: forms as interstitial fluid (around the cell)99% of cells are lymphocytes

Name the characteristics specific to supporting connective tissues? What are those tissues?

Contain few cells, high amounts of fiber, andA ground substance that may contain insoluble calcium saltsCartilage: Hyaline, Elastic, FibrousBone

What is the location of hyaline cartilage?

Between tips of ribs and bones ofSternum; covering bone surfaces;At synovial joints; supporting larynxTrachea, and bronchi; forming part of the septum

What is the function of hyaline cartliage?

Provides stiff but somewhat Flexible support; reducesFriction between bony surfaces

Where are the locations of elastic cartilage?

Auricle of external earEpiglottis; auditory canalCuneiform cartilages of larynx

What is the function of elastic cartilage?

Provides support, but toleratesDistortion without damageAnd returns to original shape

Where are the locations of fibrous cartilage?

Pads within knee joint;Between pubic bones of pelvisIntervertebral discs

What is the function of fibrous cartilage?

Resists compression; prevents Bone to bone contact; limits relative Movement

Where are mucous membranes located?

Nasal cavityMouthEsophagus liningLung bronchiUrinary system

What are the characteristics of mucous membranes? What is it used in?

Surface epithelium moist, forms barrierUnderlying loose connective tissue (lamina propria)Lines all body cavities that open to the exteriorOften adapted for absorption or secretion Most secret mucus

What are the serous membranes?

Parietal peritoneumVisceral peritoneum

Describe the characteristics of the serous memebranes?

Thin, transparent-simple squamous epitheliumAttached to body wall and organs they cover

What is the function of the serous memebranes?

Minimize frictionLines open body cavities that are closed To the exterior or the bodySerous layers seperated by serous fluid

Where is the cutaneous membrane? Describe it's characteristic? What is the function?

SkinOutermost protective boundaryKeratinized (water resistent)

Where is the synovial membranes located? What is the function?

Line joint cavitySynovial fluidLubricates cartilages, cushions shocks, distributesOxygen and nutrients

Describe the from outermost to innermost the levels of mucous membranes?

Surface of skin, mucous secretionEpitheliumLamina propria (areolar tissue)

Describe from outermost to innermost the levels within serous membranes?

TransudateMesotheliumAreolar tissue

Describe the layers of cutaneous membranes?

EpitheliumAreolar tissueDense irregular connective tissue

Name the three types of muscle cells?

SkeletalCardiacSmooth

Name the two types of neural tissues?

NeuronsNeuroglia

What are the characteristics of muscle tissue?

Cells are long, cylindricalStraited, and multinucleate

What is the characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue?

Cells are short, branched, and straitedUsually with a single nucleus; cellsAre interconnected by intercalated discs

What are the characteristics of smooth muscle tissue?

Cells are short, spindle-shaped, andNonstraited, with a single, central nucleus