Vocab Ch. 1 and 2

Abscess:

encapsulated collection of pus:

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome:

impairment of cellular immunity:

Active Immunity:

a person forms antibodies to counterat an antigen in the form of a vaccine or toxoid:

Anaphylactic:

reactions characterized by hypotension and vascular collapse with urticaria, bronchiolar spasm, and laryngeal edema:

Anaplastic:

without form:

Anasarca:

pronounced swelling of subcutaneous tissue throughout the body:

Antibodies:

body�s counteraction to control antigens:

Antigens:

body�s ability to recognize foreign substances:

Atrophy:

diminished size as a result of wasting away:

Autosomes:

all chromosomes except gender:

Bacteremia:

bacteria spread through the circulatory system:

Benign:

tumors that closely resemble their cells of origin in structure and function and remain localized:

Cancers:

collectively, malignant tumors:

Carcinoma:

malignant neoplasm of epithelial cell origins:

Community Acquired:

contracted outside the healthcare facility:

Dominant:

genes that always produce an effect:

Dysplasia:

disordered growth or faulty development of various tissues or body parts:

Edema:

accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities:

Elephantitis:

localized edema:

Grading:

assesment of a tumor to determine the degree of aggressiveness or malignancy:

Granulation tissue:

combination of young developing capillaries and actively proliferating fibroblasts producing connective tissue fibers:

Hematogenous Spread:

spread by means of the bloodstream:

Hematoma:

hemorrhage trapped in body tissue:

Hemorrhage:

bleeding or abnormal blood flow from a vessel into tissue:

Hepatitis:

inflammatory disease of the liver:

Hereditary Disease:

transmitted to offspring through genes:

Hyperplasia:

abnormal increase in the number of cells composing a tissue or organ:

Iatrogenic:

caused by physicians and their treatment:

Idiopathic:

underlying cause unknown:

Immune:

reaction of the body provides a powerful defense against invading organisms:

Infarct:

death of tissue because interruption of the normal blood supply:

Inflammation:

initial response of body tissue to local injury:

Ischemia:

lack of blood supply in an organ or tissue:

Lymphatic Spread:

malignant cells carried through lymphatic system:

Malignant:

cancerous:

Metastasize:

spread of disease to another organ or tissue in the body:

Mutations:

alterations in the DNA structure that may become permanent hereditary changes:

Neoplasia:

any new and abnormal growth, especially when growth is uncontrollable and aggressive:

Nosocromial:

infections developed at the acute care facility:

Oncology:

study of neoplasms:

Permeable:

membrane allowing fluids to pass through:

Pyogenic:

bacteria that lead to the production of pus:

Recessive:

genes that manifest themselves only when the person is homozygous foe the trait:

Sarcomas:

highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissue:

Signs:

represent the measurable or objective manifestations of the disease process:

Staging:

determination of the amount of spread of a neoplasm; necessary to select appropriate therapy and predict future course of disease:

Sypmtoms:

subjective manifestations; the patient feels:

Toxoid:

chemically altered toxin:

Undifferentiated:

without form:

Vaccine:

low dose of dead or deactivated bacteria or virus:

Anechoic:

not producing internal echoes; on ultrasound:

Annihilation:

interaction produces two high-energy photons (gamma rays) in opposite directions separated by 180 degrees:

Collimator:

containing multiple parallel channels to allow the rays to pass:

Computed Tomography:

produces cross-sectional tomographic images by first scanning a slice of tissue from multiple angles with a narrow x-ray beam:

CT number:

attenuation of specific tissue relative to that of water:

Diffusion Imaging:

relies on the movement of molecules and random thermal motion:

Direct Fusion:

equipment designed to image two modalities simultaneously and integrate the images:

Echogenic:

producing a relatively strong reflection in ultrasound:

Fat-Suppressed Images:

requires saturation or full magnetization on the T1 sequence to ensure a large contrast difference between fat and water:

Functional MR (fMR):

allows the localization of specific regions of the brain that correspond to various functions:

Gamma Camera:

a sodium iodide crystal detects the ionizing radiation emitted from the patient:

Helical:

spiral continuous motion:

Integrated Imaging:

requires software to fuse two imaging modalities:

Isoechoic:

structures that have same echogenicity:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging:

a strong magnet producing radiofrequencies at specified intervals and receiving a return signal to produce an image:

Nuclear Medicine:

using radiopharmaceuticals to produce ionizing radiation, which is detected by a gamma camera to produce an image:

Positron emission tomography:

imaging technique using a radiopharmaceutical that emits a positron and is detected by a moving gamma camera:

Radiofrequency Pulse:

refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current and their effect upon a body is potential heating of tissues in MRI:

Radiopharmaceutical:

a drug that is tagged to emit ionizing radiation:

Spin-Echo:

most common pulse sequence used in MRI using 90 degree radiofrequency pulses to excite the magnetization and one or more 180 degree pulses to refocus the s pins to generate signal echoes:

Ultrasound:

images produced by high-frequency sound waves emitted from the transducer that are echoed back to produce an image:

Volume-Rendered Imaging:

technique that takes all the raw CT data density information and uses them to simulate three dimensional images: