Psychology

Prenatal period-

the time from conception to birth

Zygote-

the first new cell resulting from conception

Germinal stage-

the period of development that lasts from the time of fertilization until the blast cyst (hollow ball)

Embryonic stage-

the period of development during which the embryo develops at a rapid rate, and all of the organ systems of the body are bid in place (last about 6 weeks)

Fetal stage-

the period of development during which the organs of the body continue increase in function (includes months 3-9)

Point of viability-

the time in which the fetus could survive if it was born prematurely

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)-

a problem in which smaller babies with retarded growth, poor coordination, poor muscle tone and intellectual retardation results when the mother consumes alcohol during pregnancy

Neonate-

the name given to a newborn

Information processing approach-

focus on changes in basic information processing system; quantitative approach

Piaget�s Stages of Development-

4 stages:1) sensorimotor (birth � 2 years)2) preoperational (2 � 7 years)3) concrete operational (7 � 11 years)4) formal operational (11- adulthood)

Schemas-

according to Piaget, integrated mental representations that children construct to make sense of the world

Organization-

predisposition to integrate individual schemas into organized units

Adaptation-

according to Piaget, the process of developing the appropriate schemas to meet the demands of the environment

Assimilation-

according to Piaget, a process that occurs when a child incorporates new information into an existing schema

Accommodation-

according to Piaget, the process that allows a child to modify his or her schemas in order to account for new objects or experiences (or to create new schemas)

Sensorimotor stage-

Piaget�s stage of cognitive development (birth to 2 years) in which children discover by sensing (sensori -) and by doing (motor)

Object permanence-

the awareness that objects still exist even if they cannot be seen and that their reappearance is anticipated

Preoperational stage-

Piaget�s stage of cognitive development (2 � 7 years) in which a child�s thinking in self � centered, or egocentric

Concrete operations stage-

Piaget�s stage of cognitive development (7 � 11 years) in which children begin to develop many new concepts and show that they can manipulate these concepts

Conservation-

the awareness that changing the form or appearance of something does not change what it really is

Formal operation stage-

Piaget�s stage of cognitive development (12 and older) characterized by the logical manipulation of abstract, symbolic concepts