CHEMISTRY EXAM 1

Hydrocholoric Acid

HCl

Nitric Acid

HNO3

Acetic Acid

HC2H3O2/C2H3OOH

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4

Phosphoric Acid

H3PO4

Carbonic Acid

H2CO3

Chloric Acid

HClO3

Oxidation of Copper

1+,2+

Oxidation States of Iron

2+,3+

Oxidation States of Mercury

1+,2+

Oxidation states of Antimony

3+,5+

Oxidation states of Chromium

2+,3+

Oxidation states of Tin

2+, 4+

Chemistry

The study of matter, its composition, and the changes it undergoes

Major Divisons of Chemistry

1.Biochemistry- study of biological chemicals2.Organic- carbon based compounds3.Inorganic- all other elements4.Physical- theory and concepts5.analytical- methods of analysis6.nuclear- radioactive materials

Scientific Method

1.Apply logical, organized reason to any observation made2.Form Hypothesis3.Reject or confirm (trial&error) hypothesis through experiment

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

Mass

measure of the amount of matter that object contains

Weight

the effect of gravity on matter

Physical Properties

can be seen without changing the composition of material

Intense

size doesn't matter ex.color, ordor, density, melting point, boiling point, taste, feel, compressibility, magnetism, duetility, solubility, conductivity

extensive

size does matter ex.mass, length, etc.

Chemical Properites

change in composition

Physical changes in matter

composition isnt alteredchanges in statedissolvingpulverizing

chemical changes in matter

composition is alteredrustingcombustionfermentation

Factors that aid chemical reactions

1.heat energy2.light energy3.electric energy4.water5.catalyst

exothermic

energy is released (heat or light)

endothermic

energy is absorbed (temp. drops)

atoms

smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of the element

molecule

smallest unit of a pure substance that has all the properties of that substancemay have one atom or more

diatomic

molecule that contains two atoms

homoatomic

two or more atoms of one element

heteroatomic

contains at least 2 atoms of two or more elements

mixture

a combination of two or more pure substances

homogenous

uniform composition

heterogenous

non-uniform composition

element

cannot be converted to simplier form by a chemical reactionex.hydrogen, oxygen

compound

two or more elements in a definite, reproducible wayex.water

data

measurements and observations that you make

results

data obtained from experiments

units

defines the quantities being measuredmust have units

mega-

106

kilo-

103

hecto

102

deca-

101

deci-

10-1

1 liter=_______quarts

1.057

1 kilogram=______lbs

2.2

1 meter=_______yards

1.094

1 inch=________cm

2.54

accuracy

how close to the true value

procision

how close to each other

Significant Figures

leading zeros are not significantcaptive zeros are significanttrailing zeros are significant

Formula to find Fahrenheit

9/5C+32

Formula to find Celsius

5/9(F-32)

Formula for finding Kelvins

C+273.15

Denisty formula

D=mass/volume

Speific Gravity formula

SG=density of substance/ density of reference

Solid or liquid reference is equal to?

1.00g/cm3

gas reference is equal to?

1.29g/l

Percentage Error Formula

(theoretical-experimental)/theoretical

Symbols

used to represent each element

formulas

used to represent compounds

compound formula

consists of the symbol of the elements found on the compound

nucleus

the protons and neutrons are tightly bound together to form the central portion of an atom

Protons

located in the nucleuscharge of 1+mass of 1u

Neutrons

located in the nucleusno chargemass of 1u

Electrons

located outside the nucleuscharge of 1-mass of 1/1836u

Atomic Number of an atom

equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of the atomrepresented by the symbol of Z

Mass number of an atom

equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atomrepresented by the symbol A

Isotopes

atoms that contain the same number of protons but a different numbe of neutronsthey have the same atomic # but different mass # same #of electrons outside that nucleus

relative masses

extremely small size of atoms and molecules make it inconvenient to use their actual massescomparisons of actual masses

atomic weight

the relative mass of an average atom of the element expressed in atomic mass unitthe number given at the bottom ofthe box containing the symbol of each element

molecular weight

relative mass of a molecule in the atomic mass unitobtained by adding together the atomic weigth of all the atoms in the molecule

Formula for finding atomic weight of isotopes

(isotope percentage)(isotope mass)/ 100

Mole is equal to______

the number of atoms in one mole is equal to Avogardro's Number

Avogardro's Number

6.022x1023

Percentage Composition

Know the formula2.Know the formula weight3.divide the number of atoms by the formula weightex.H3PO4=98.00H=3.03/98.00=3.09%

All done =)

GOOD JOB!!!