Dental Anatomy


general arrangement of the natural teeth in the jawbone

Primary dentition

1st dentition20 baby teethdecicous dentition (exfoliated/shed)

Second dentition

permanent dentitionsecondary dentitionsuccadaneous dentiton


biting and cutting food during mastacian


pierce or tear food


assist molars in grinding and assist canines in tearing during mastacian


grind food during mastacian

clinical consideration for tooth type

the goal for the clinician in restoring teeth is to get the teeth to their proper shape, because maintaining toothe shape=maintaining tooth function

Universal system for tooth designation

used most in the U.S. becuase it is adaptable to electronic data transfer. Observed as though facing pt.

Primary teeth in universal system

Max. Jaw= A-J from pt. right-leftMand. Jaw= K-T from pt. left-right

Permanent teeth in universal system

Max. Jaw= 1-16 from pt. right-leftMand. Jaw= 17-32 from pt. left-right

International standards organization (ISO) orFederation dentitaire internationale's system (FDI)

system used internationally and also used by World Health Organization. Observed as though facing pt.

ISO or FDI use a ______ code.

2 digit

What are the 2 digits used in the FDI or ISO?

1st digit= quadrant2nd digit= toothpermanent teeth go from 1-8 from midline-distalprimary teeth go from 1-5 from midline-distal

Palmer method

commonly used in orthodontics. observed as though facing pt.

Palmer method design

designated with a right angle representing the quadrant, and the number or letter of tooth in that quadrantpermanent 1-8 from midline-distalprimary a-e from midline-distal

Primary dentition period

starts with eruption of first tooth, and ends with eruption of first permanent toothbetween 6 months-6 yrs

What is usually the first primary tooth to erupt?

mandibular central incisors

What is usually the first permanent tooth to erupt?

mandibular 1st molar

Describe the jawbone during primary dentition period

it is growing to accomodate more teeth

Mixed dentition

starts with eruption of first permanent tooth (usually mandibular first molar) and ends with shedding of last primary tooth. from about 6 yr.-12 yr.

Describe the jawbone during the mixed dentition period.

it is growing the most in this stage, thus it is a good stage for braces.

Why are primary teeth whiter than permanent teeth?

primary teeth have more enamel and less dentin. Permanent teeth are reversed.

Do females or males typically loose their primary teeth faster?


Ugly duckling stage

clinical consideration of mixed dentition stage because the teeth are all different sizes and colors

gingiva during mixed dentition stage

inflammed gums caused by temporary crowding of teeth and edentulous

Juvenlie periodontitis

bone loss around molars and mandibular anterior teeth as young as 10 years old.

Oral hygiene during mixed dentition stage

poor due to biofilm retention. Pt.s at this age and stage need to be well educated on how to take care of their teeth

Permanent dentition stage

starts at shedding of last baby tooth. about 12 yrs. teeth usually errupt in pairs

How can you tell if teeth are congenitally missing? Or impacted?



tooth socket

alveolar process

tooth bearing portion of each jawbone


the way the teeth of the mandibular arch come in contact with the teeth of the maxillary arch. Also describes anatomical alignment of teeth and their relationship with the rest of the teeth

Anterior teeth

incisors and canines

posterior teeth

molars and premolars


instead of 4 quads, use 6 sections 2 sets of molars on right side, 2 sets of anterior teeth, and 2 sets of molars on left side

Cementoenamal junction (CEJ)

an external line at the neck or cervix of the tooth, an area where the enamal of the crown, and cementum of the root come close to meeting

What are the 3 ways the enamel and cementum may meet? and the percentage of which they do?

overlapping= 60%edge to edge= 30%gap between= 10%

Anatomical Crown

portion of tooth covered by enamal. Most constant over tooth life, except in cases of attrition where teeth have been physically grownd down

clinical crown

portion of tooth you can see above gums (it changes with the gingival level)

Anatomical root

portion covered by cementum

clinical root

portion of root that is visible (varies over time and age)

Where is the root of tooth the widest?

widest at CEJ and taper towards apex

Is the root of the tooth bulkier on the facial and buccal side? Or lingual side?

facial and buccal side

On what side does the root taper?

lingual side

Root axis line

imaginary line representing the long axis of the tooth. It helps determine angulation during instrumentation


samll camera showing root surface, helpful in perio

facial surface

close to face

labial surface

close to lips (anterior)


close to cheecks (buccal)


tongue side


biting surface


surface closest to midlin


surface farthest from midline


mesial and distal surface between adjacent teeth

interproximal space

area between adjacent tooth surfaces


proximal surface where adjacent teeth touch

height of contour

contact area on a specific crown surface which is the greatest elevation of tooth (mesial distal contact)

proximal CEJ curvature

greatest on anterior teeth-least on posterior teeth.greater on mesial than distal of toothhelps distinguish left from right on extracted teeth


triangular spaced shape between 2 teeth continuous with the interproximal space

line angles

formed by junction of 2 crown surfaces

point angle

formed by the junction of 3 crown surfaces

Crown thirds

horizontally= cervical, middle, incisal/occlusalvertically= mesial, middle, distal

Root thirds

horizontally= cervical, middle, apical

Describe the naming sequence

mesial precedes distal - mesiodistalmesial and distal precede all other termslabial, buccal, lingual, follow mesial and distal, but precede incisal and occlusal