ch 3.txt


flow of water through membranesalways a passive processcan diffuse through plasma membrane or through aquaporins, a membrane protein

active transport

goes against concentration gradient - uses ATP, which leaves a phosphate group and becomes ADP, provides the energy for the process to occur


entry of materials INTO a celltypes: receptor mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis (large items, forms a u shape upward and englufs material) and pinocytosis (liquid into cell, cell forms a crevase and liquid materials enter, then cell closes it in)


exit of materials from cell into surrounding extracellular fluid


network of protein filaments throughout the cytosol


packaging of proteins and vesicles carry proteins onwards

types of vesicles

secretory vesicles: remove proteins from the cell and secrete them to somewhere elsemembrane vesicles: send proteins to membrane to be attached (ie: glycoproteins)transport vesicles: proteins sent to other parts of cell,(ie: lysosome to act in aiding digestion)


early prophase - chromatin is still forming chromosomeslate prophase - chromosomes are formed, microtubules begin to attach to chromosomes and nuclear envelope begins to break apartmetaphase - chromosomes line up at centerearly anaphase - chromosomes begin to separate and move to separate poles, cell starts to reshape in order to start divisionlate anaphase - cleavage furrow forms, almost two separate cellstelophase - cell splits into two separate cells