are imaginary flat surfaces passing through the body

Sagittal plane

divides the body into right and left halves

Frontal (coronal) plane

divides the body into front & back portions

Transverse (horizontal) plane

divides the body into upper & lower portions; alsocalled a cross section.

Axial Region

Head = cephalic cranium = houses the brain facial = faceNeck = cervical thorax = above diaphragm Abdomen = below diaphragm Back = lumbar

Appendicular region

Upper limb =arm brachium =arm antebrachium = forearm carpus = wrist manus = hand digits = fingersLower limb =leg inguinal =groin femoral = thigh crus = leg tarsus = ankle pedal = foot digits = toes

Major body cavities

spaces filled with visceralorgans and lined with membranes

Dorsal cavity

Cranial cavity = houses the brain; lined with meningeVertebral canal = houses the spinal cord; lined with meninge

Ventral cavity

Thoracic cavity = houses the heart and lungs Mediastinum = space above the heart Pericardial cavity = contains the heart; membrane is pericardium Pleural cavity = contains the 2 lungs; membrane is pleuraAbdominopelvic cavity =houses digestive, reproductive, and urinary organs and lined with the peritoneum membrane abdominal cavity = houses the stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder,spleen, intestines pelvic cavity = houses the urinary bladder, female uterus and ovaries,rectum

Abdominopelvic Quadrants

right upper quadrant, leftupper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant

Abdominopelvic Regions

r. hypochondriac, epigastric, l. hypochondriac, r. lumbar, umbilical, l. lumbar, r. inguinal, hypogastric, l. inguinal.


the process of maintaining asteady state; the physiological mechanism that resets body functions tomaintain a stable, steady state

Negative feedack

changes function to reverse its directionMost common mechanismex. sweating (vasodilation) or shivering (vasoconstriction)

Positive feedback

Pushes function in same directionex. pregnancy