ch 2.txt


provide most of energy for life, include sugars, starches, glycogenfunction as food reservoirs (ie: glucose in liver)can be mono, di or polysaccharides

monosaccharide examples

pentose sugars - deoxyribose and ribose (deoxy has no OH on one of its carbons, just H)hexoses - glucose, fructose, galactose (6 carbon chains with different arrangements)


combine 2 monosaccharides through dehydration (water lost) and bond is formed

examples of disaccharides

sucrose = glucose + fructosemaltose = glucose + glucoselactose = glucose + galactose


combine with proteins for transport in bloodhave FEW POLAR covalent bonds, hydrophobic, mostly insoluble in H2O


most plentiful in body, provides insulation and protection and ENERGYexcess stored in adipose tissue


important membrane components - make up phospholipid bilayer - ampipathicnon-polar tail (fatty acid chain) and polar head (phosphate group and glycerol)


cholesterol - have 4 RINGS, include sex hormones, bile salts and some vitamins


formed by amino acids, with a peptide bond2 amino acids with one peptide bond form a dipeptidepolypeptide is multiple amino acids with peptide bonds

how many amino acids until a protein

50 amino acids, so 49 peptide bonds

nucleic acids

organic molecules with carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorous

examples of nucleic acids

DNA - has a deoxyribose (pentose) sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group


relays the genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosome where the information is translated into a set of amino acids that form proteins


contains the genetic information of each cell that determine many of the activities and functions

ATP synthesis

ATP synthase (an enzyme) catalyzes the addition of a phosphate to ADP (adenosine di-phosphate becomes adenosine triphosphate)

glucose as energy

1 glucose molecule can be used as energy to create 36-38 ATP through aerobic respiration (also anaerobic, but not as much ATP during this)