Unit 1 test review

what is osmosis

Movement of solvent (water) across a selectively permeable membrane

what is the pH scale

acid- base concentration

1 on the pH scale means what?

very acidic

7 on the pH scale means what

neutral

14 on the pH scale means what?

very basic

what are the 2 types of transport

active passive

What is required for active transport?

ATP energy

what is the difference between passive and active transport

active transport requires ATP passive does not

What determines whether or not a substance can passively permeate a membrane?

Lipid solubility of substance Channels of appropriate sizeCarrier proteins

Types of passive transport

Simple diffusion Carrier-meditated facilitated diffusion Channel-mediated facilitated diffusionosmosis

if the process needs to slow down or stop it creates a_____________ or enhancing it in a ____________ so that the whole process continues at a faster rate

negative feedbackpositive feedback

2 major divisions _____- Head, neck, trunk. ____________- Limbs

axialAppendicular

Name the 9 regions of the body

Right hypochondriac region Epigastric region Left hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Umbilical region Left lumbar region Right iliac (inguinal) region Hypogastric (pubic) region left iliac (inguinal) region

name the 4 quadrants of the body

Right upper quadrant Left upper quadrant Right lower quadrant Left lower quadrant

define organic compound

contain carbon. Covalently bonded molecules, and many are large.

define inorganic compound

chemical substances that do not contain carbon these include water salts and many acids and bases

what is anabolic reactions

always involve bond formation. Type of synthesis reaction

what is catabolic reactions

reverse synthesis reactions, involve breaking of bonds. Decomposition reactions

In blood clotting, the body sends lost and lots of platlets to stop the bleeding.... results in what type of feedback

positive

Home heating system is set @ 68 degrees. When the room drops below that temp, it is triggered on to bring the temp up.... results in what type of feedback

negative

name 4 of the 11 organ systems

integumentaryskeletal muscularnervous

define the integumentary system

forms the external body covering and protecting deeper tissues from injury

define the skeletal system

protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework for the muscles to use to cause movement

define the muscular system

allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression, maintains posture, produces heat

define the nervous system

fast-acting control system of body. Responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands

hair skin and nails are an example of what organ system

integumentary

joints and bones are example of what organ system

skeletal system

skeletal muscles are an example of what organ system

muscular system

brain and spinal cord are an example of what organ system

nervous system

name the 4 body cavities

dorsalventralthoracicabdominopelvic

name the 2 subdivisions of the dorsal cavity and what they do

cranial cavity- encases brainvertebral cavity- encases spinal cord

name the 3 subdivisions of the thoracic cavity and what they do

2 pleural cavities (each houses a lung) Mediastinum- (contains pericardial cavity, surrounds thoracic organs) Pericardial cavity- (encloses heart)

name the 2 subdivisions of the abdominopelvic cavity

Abdominal- (contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver) Pelvic- (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum)

define histology

Study of tissues

define cytology

Study of cells in the body

define gross anatomy

macroscopic, study of large body structures by the naked eye

name the 6 levels of structural organization that make up the human body and what they involve

**Chemical- atoms and molecules **Cellular- cells and their organelles **Tissue- groups of similar cells **Organ- contains two or more types of tissue **Organ system- organs that work closely together**Organismal- all organ systems

define homeostasis

Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes equilibrium

what are the 5 characteristics necessary to maintain life

Nutrients Oxygen Water Normal body temp Appropriate atmospheric pressure

name some examples of a monosaccharide

glucose, fructose, ribose

name some examples of a disaccharide

sucrose, maltose, lactose

what are the levels of protein structure

Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary

Carbohydrates monosaccharides

Disaccharides Polysaccharides Lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Steroids Eicosanoids Proteins

what is the fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane

bimolecular layer of lipids and proteins

what happens to a cell when u put it into different solutions

there is a change in volume which disrupts cell function

what are the 6 planes of the human body

sagittal planemidsagittal (median) planeparasagittal planefrontal (coronal) planetransverse (horizontal) planeoblique sections

sagittal plane

divides the body vertically into right and left parts

midsagittal (median) plane

lies on the midline

parasagittal plane

not on midline

frontal (coronal) plane

divides the body vertically into anterior and posterior parts

transvers (horizontal) plane

divides the body horizontally into superior and inferior parts

oblique sections

cuts made diagonally

cephalic region

head

abdominal

stomach

pubic

genital

brachial

arm

femoral

thigh

cervical

neck

throacic

chest

pelvic

groin

upper limbs

shoulder

manus

hand

pedal

foot

back region of the body

dorsal

directional term and examplesuperior

Toward the head end or upper part of the body of a structure or the body; above (ex. The head is superior to the abdomen

directional term and exampleinferior

away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below (ex. The navel is inferior to the chin)

directional term and exampleventral (anterior)

toward or at the front of the body; in front of (ex.the breastbone is anterior to the spine)

directional term and examplemedial

toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of (ex. The heart is medial to the arm)

directional term and examplelateral

Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of (ex. The arms are lateral to the chest)

directional term and exampleintermediate

between a more medial and a more lateral structre (ex. The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder)

directional term and exampleproximal

closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk (ex. The elbow is proximal to the wrist)

directional term and exampledistal

farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk(ex. The knee is distal to the thigh)

directional term and examplesuperficial (external)

toward or at the body surface (ex. The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles.)

directional term and exampledeep (internal)

away from the body surface more internal (ex. The lungs are deep to the skin)

name the 6 types of energy

kineticpotentialchemicalelectricalmechanicalradiant or electromagnetic

kinetic energy

energy in action

potential energy

stored energy that is, inactive energy that has the potential or capability but is not doing so

chemical energy

stored in the bonds of chemical substances

electrical energy

results from the movement of charged particles

mechanical energy

directly involved in moving matter

radiant or electromagnetic energy

energy that travels in waves

protons have what type of charge

positive

the nucleus contains protons and what

neutrons

the nucleus has what kind of charge

positive

a neutron has what kind of charge

neutral

an electron has what kind of charge

negative

what do acids do

release hydrogen ions

what do bases do

take up hydrogen ions