Anatomy Lecture Exam I


the study of structure of the body

Four ways to study Anatomy

Inspection (physical exam) , Dissection (cadaver vs. comparative anatomy), Gross Anatomy (naked eye), Microscopic Anatomy (microscope)








the study of the function of the body


individual living thing

Organ System

group of organs that work together for a specific task


group of two or more tissue types with a specific function


a group of similar cells that form a region of an organ & have similar structure and function


smallest unit of a living organism that can carry out the basic functions of life


differentiated structure within a cell


particle made up of at least two atoms


smallest particle matter with an unique chemical identity


maintaining a constant internal environment or equilibrium


any disruption of homeostasis that threatens physical or emotional well-being

Negative Feedback

process where the body senses a change and activates mechanism to negate or reverse it

components of negative feedback

receptor or sensor(senses the change), integrating or control center (process the information from the receptor and make a "decision" on how to respond), effector (cell or organ that carries out the corrective action)

Positive feedback

a self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even more change in the same direction

Integumentary System

skin, hair, nails. Function: protection, thermo regulation, vitamin D

Skeletal System

bones, cartilage, ligaments. Function: support, protection, movement, blood cell formation

Muscular System

skeletal muscles. Function: movement, stability

Nervous System

nerves, brain, spinal cord, ganglia. Function: communication, coordination, motor control, sensation.

Endocrine System

pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries. Function: hormones

Cardiovascular System

heart, blood vessels. Function: distribute nutrients, oxygen, hormones, waste, etc. Fluid balance.

Lymphatic System

lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils. Function: defend against disease and recovery of excess tissue fluid.

Respiratory System

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. Function: absorb oxygen, discharge CO2, acid-base balance, speech.

Digestive System

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, SI, LI, liver, gallbladder, pancreas. Function: nutrient breakdown and absorption.

Urinary System

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra. Function: elimination of waste, regular blood pressure and blood volume, stimulate red blood cell (RBC) production, electrolyte and acid-base balance

Female Reproductive System

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands. Function: egg production, fetal development, make sex hormones, lactation.

Male Reproductive System

testes, vas deferens, prostate, penis. Function: sperm production, makes sex hormones.

Hypothetico-deductive method:

Four Steps: 1. observation. 2. hypothesize 3. experiment 4. conclusions & reporting

Inductive Method:

make numerous observation to draw generalizations and predictions. raises issue of proof

Considerations in experiments

Variable (any condition of an experiment), Experimental Group (group that contains the tested variable), Control Group (group that does not contain the tested variable)


anything that has mass and takes up space. All organisms are made of matter.


a substance that cannot be changed into another substance. Ex. Hydrogen, Oxygen.


the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of the element.


neutral charge. (in nucleus)


negative charge (orbit around nucleus)


positive charge (in nucleus)

Atomic number

number of proton

Atomic mass

protons + neutrons


atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons


particle made of 2 or more atoms united by a chemical bond.

diatomic molecule

molecule consist of 2 of the same type of atom bonded together


molecule consist of 2 or more different elements


charged atoms with unequal numbers of protons and electrons. They give up or gain an electron to try to become more stable.


positively charged ion. gave up an electron


negatively charged ion. gained an electron


salts that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting electricity. = ions

Free radical

a chemical particle carrying an odd number of electrons.BAD


a chemical that neutralized free radicals GOOD

Ionic bonds

two ions are attracted to each other and bond because of an opposite charge. weak.

covalent bonds

two atoms share electrons. [strongest bond]

Non-polar covalent bond

evenly distributing charge

Polar covalent bond

water. have slight opposite charges on either end

Hydrogen bonds

water molecules. the - side of the molecule (oxygen) is attracted to the + side of another molecule [hydrogen]. Not stuck together, just stay close. weakest


a compound that releases hydrogen ions in solution


a compound that accept hydrogen ions


an ionic compound that does NOT contain H+ or OH- and comes from an acid-base reaction


the measurement of the H+ concentration in a solution. Expression of acidity


neutral pH


acidic pH


Basic or Alkaline pH

low pH

higher H

Normal blood & tissue pH

7.35- 7.45


any mechanism that resists large changes in pH. maintain homeostasis for pH.

Chemical buffers

take up or give off H+ ions

Physiological buffers

control output of acids, bases, or CO2.

3 Chemical Buffers

1. Bicarbonate: Shift to the right, equals more Hydrogen in body which makes pH lower. Shift to left decreases Hydrogen ions, which increases pH.2. Phosphate:Proteins:

2 Physiological Buffers

1. Respiratory system: 2-3 times stronger than chemical buffers. breath CO2. ventilation less or more adds or decreases CO2.2. Urinary System: Because it actually expels H+ from the body, the urinary system is the strongest buffering system in our body.


tendency of one substance to cling to another


the tendency of molecules of the same substance to cling to each other

capillary action

the movement of liquid along the surface of a solid due to the attraction of the liquid molecules to the solid molecules

surface tension

manifestation of cohesion of water at the surface

high specific heat

the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree C

High heat of vaporization

amount of heat it takes to convert liquid to vapor


Covalently bonded, polar molecule.


ability to dissolve other chemicals.

Chemical reactivity

ability to participate in chemical reactions.

Organic chemistry

the study of carbon compounds

Four types of organic molecules:

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid.

monomer or subunit of carbohydrated

monosaccharides (aka simple sugars) ex. glucose, fructoseFunctions: source of energy and in structure


fatty acids and alcohols.Functions: energy storage. thermal insulation. cushion. cell membrane structure. chemical signals between cells

Proteins. Monomer:

amino acids. functions: structure: Keratin (hair, skin, nails). Collagen (cartilage, deep layers of skin)communication: hormones Membrane transportMetabolism: enzymesProtection: antibodies, clotting proteins

Nucleic Acids:monomer:

nucleotidesexample: DNA, RNAfunctions: heredity, protein synthesis


Adenosine Triphosphate. a nucleotide. The fuel of living cells.

Dehydration Synthesis

assembling organic molecules by extracting water. aka condensation.


breaking up organic molecules using water.

Proteins that function as biological catalysts

lower the activation energy [energy needed to start a reaction], speeding up chemical processes

Enzymes are:

ubstrate {substance the enzymes act on} specificnot consumed by the reaction they catalyzeaffected by pH and temperature outside of the ideal range which change their shape. must be in perfect condition to work