psy 108: ch 13

Lifespan approach to development

Cognitive developmentArgues that dvlpmental changes continue beyond young adulthoodWe continue to change & adapt throughout our entire lives

Own-race bias

Memory in infantsPpl's tendency to identify members of their own ethnic grp relatively accurately vs. members of another ethnic grp Babies show this: white babies can tell diff btwn 2 White facaes but not btwn 2 asian faces

Conjugate reinforcement technique

Memory in infants A mobile hangs above a young infant's crib w/a ribbon connected to its ankle & mobile so when infant kicks the mobile moves NV measure to assess infant memoryAppealing to 2-6mo oldsResponse = foot kick; reinforcement = mvmt of the mobileClever way to "ask" infants if they remember how to activate the mobileDemonstrates LT retention shows a steady, linear improvement during 1st 18mo of life--cog ability/improvement is taking offDisproves idea that infant memory is extremely limited--shows infants can remember actions even after substantial delay Infant & adult memory influenced by many of same factors: context effects, eyewitness testimony, spacing effect, levels of processing effect

Spacing effect

Memory in infantsStudents learn most effectively if their practice is distributed over time vs. learning material all at onceInfants also learn better w/thisShows infant & adult memory influenced by many of same factors

Childhood amnesia

Children's LTMAutobiographical memoryPpl typically don't describe events that occurred in own lives b4 2-3yrs oldControversial subjWe know 2yr olds freq describe an event that occurred several weeks/months ago so they must be able to store verbal memories for substantial periods of timeInfants have memories qualitatively similar to memories of adultsLTM becomes reasonably strong when kids are abt 2-mo Infantile amnesia: children under 2yrs don't have well-org'd sense of who they are so they'll have difficulty encoding & retrieving series of events connected w/themselves

Source monitoring

Children's LTMProcess of trying to decide which memories/beliefs are real & which are simply imagined Remembering when & where you heard something Kids under 7 have more difficulty distinguishing btwn reality & fantasyMake most errors when imagine how it'd feel to do something so convince themselves they actually did it Sometimes children recall they performed a task when actually performed by another person w/whom they'd been collaborating--memory of thinking abt project transforms into memory of actually completing project Esp poor in children if questioned long time after original event Much less accruate than adultsCan be easily confused when you suggest things to them

Memory strategies

Intentional, goal-oriented activities we use to improve our memoriesRecall memory requires active use of memory strategies which aren't dvlpd until middle childhoodChildren have poor recall b/c can't use memory strategies effectively Young children may not realize they're helpful vs. older children typically realize they are & often use variety of them so they can recall w/reasonable accuracy Rehearsal, organizational strategies (categorizing & grouping), imagery Children w/more sophisticated metacog abilities report using memory strategies & likely to use them effectively Utilization deficiency

Utilization deficiency

Memory strategiesSome young children may not use the strategies effectively so strategies may not improve their recall Don't use appropriate strategies when they need to--don't realize usefulness

Prospective memory

LTM in elderly Remembering to do something in futureOlder adults have difficulty on many of these tasks--generally make more errors than young adultsRelies heavily on working memory & ppl need to keep reminding themselves to do the task (older adults show decline in working memory)Perform relatively accurately when there's an enviro cue to remind them--sometimes even more accurately than young adults [take medicine on daily basis] (compensate w/past experience)Prob in working memory could lead to errors in prospective memory

Cognitive slowing

Age diff's in memorySlower rate of responding on cog tasksCan account for some age-related diff's in memory Can't fully explain why elderly function well on some other memory tasks

Theory of mind

Metamemory in childrenPpl's ideas on how their minds work & their beliefs abt other ppl's thoughts

Memory self-efficacy

Metamemory in elderlyBeleif their own potential to perform well on memory tasksThink it's important to keep dvlping their memory & likely to perform wellVS. following stereotype that memory decline is inevitable

Habituation

Language in infantsOccurs after a stimulus has been presented freqThe response rate gradually decr & then remains lowStudy of infants' capacity for speech perception: sucked on rubber nipples to produce specific phoneme -> sound becomes too boring & not worth hard work of sucking

Cooing

Language production in infancySounds that involve vowels such as "oo"Dvldpd by 2mo

Babbling

Langugage production in infancyVocalization that uses both consonants & vowels, often repeating sounds in a series["Dadda"]By 6moStarts to sound like native lang approx 10mo--imitate phonemes they're hearing

Child-directed speech

Adults' language to infantsThe lang spoken to childrenAdults tend to make lang acquisition somewhat simpler by adjusting their lang when speaking w/kids Uses repetition, simple vocab & syntax, slow pace, high pitch, exaggerated changes in pitch, exaggerated facial expressions Originally called mothereseHelp young lang learners understand meaning & structure of lang Depressed mothers don't use most of this -> disadvantage to children

Motherese

Adults language to infantsPreviously used for child-directed speech but gender biasedTone we speak to babies in--soft & melodicGoal: speak slowly & articulate so they understand the words, use context [hand signals, cues in enviro]Helps kids pick up lang b/c tailored to what they need

Fast mapping

Language in childrenUsing context to make reasonable guess abt a word's meaning after just 1-2 exposuresHelps children learn new wordsDemonstrates context is also critically important for young childrenChildren w/large vocab esp skilled in thisVocab growth rapid if child is read to & caregivers describe activities togetherLike spreading activation--using context to infer meaningRelates to schemas

Overextension

Language in childrenUse of a word to refer to other objs in addition to obj adults would consider appropriate Objs shape/function important in determining these--but sometimess word usage can wander away from original meaning Sometimes occurs when child doesn't yet know correct word for unfamiliar item or confused abt exact diff's btwn 2 concepts VS underextension

Underextension

Language in childrenUsing a word in a narrower sense than adults do [Apply name 'doggie' only to the family pet]VS overextension

Overregularization

Language in childrenTendency to add most customary morphemes to create new forms of irregular words ["I felled"]After children learn many words w/regular plurals & past tenses they progress to more advanced understanding of morphology & can sometimes create own reg forms ['mouses,' 'runned']Later they learn many words have reg plurals & past tenses but some have irreg forms ['mice,' 'ran']PDP framework: 1 explanation for this--says lang system keeps a tally of morpheme patterns for forming past tenses & since '-ed' is most common children generalize this ending to new verbs which forms inappropriate past tensesRule & memory theory: another explanation for this--gradually replace overregularized words w/appropriate ones

Rule-and-memory theory

Language in children1 explanation for overregularizationChildren learn a general rule for past tense verbs which specifies they must ad '-ed'But they also store in memory past tenses for many irreg verbs (only most common)Children who remember an irreg form will consistently use it rather than apply default '-ed' & as they gather more expertise abt lang they gradually replace overregularized words w/appropriate onesWe have all these generalized rules for how phonemes work but also have memories that help us remember the rules for irreg/unique rules/words