Human Growth Ch2

Human Development

Human development is the study of processes of change and stability throughout the life span

3 Domains/Types of Development

Physical � growth of body, sensory capabilities, motor skills, healthCognitive� mental ability, learning, attention, memory, languagePsychosocial�emotions, personality, social relationships

Social Construction

concept or practice that may appear natural but is an invention of a particular culture or society

Culture

a society or groups total way of life � all learned behaviorspassed on from parents to children - customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language

Baltes � Seven principles of life-span development

Development is lifelongDevelopment is multidimensional �biological & social develop at different ratesDevelopment is multidirectional � gain in one area, loose in another (adults)Relative influence of biology and culture shift over the lifespan � biological abilities weaken with age but cultural ability (education, relationships) growsDevelopment involves changing resourceallocations � childhood resources go to growth � old age to regulation of loss

Theory

set of logically related concepts that seek to describe and explain development and predict what kinds of behavior might occur in different conditions � organize and explain data

Hypothesis

possible explanation for phenomena � used to predict outcomes of research

5 Major Theories

1. Psychoanalytical2. Learning3. Cognitive4. Contextual5. Evolutionary

Psychoanalytic

Freud phychosexual � behavior controlled my unconscious urges � reactiveErikson phychosocial � personality is influenced by society �develops through crises � Active

Learning �

Behaviorism (traditional learning theory)(Pavlov, skinner, Watson) � people are responders �reactiveSocial Learning � children learn in social context by watching others � Active and reactive

Cognitive

Piaget congnitive stage � changes in thought occur between infancy and adolescence � children are active initiators of development � activeVygotsky sociocultural � social interaction is central to cognitive development � activeInformation-processing � human beings are processers of symbols � active

Contextual

Bronfenbrenners bioecological � development is interaction between developing person and surroundings � from Microsystems to chronosystems

Evolutionary

Bowlby attachment theory � Humans have adaptive mechanism to survive � critical and sensitive period of development � evolutionary and biological bases for behavior � predisposition toward learning

Research Methods

Qualitative research � measurable dataQuantitative research � nonnumeric al data

Scientific Method

Identifying a problemHypothesisCollect dataAnalyze dataTentative conclusionsDisseminating findings

Data Collection

Self � report � diaries, interviews, questionaresNaturalistic observations � watch people in normal settingsLaboratory observation � watch people in labBehavioral and performance measures � tested on abilities, skills,knowledge, physical response