psy 108: ch 10


SpeakingSpontaneous mvmts of fingers, hands, & armsOften accompanies our speech Can sometimes help you remember the word you want to produceWhen we produce a word we execute elaborate mvmts of the mouth & other parts of vocal systemMay sometimes activate relevant info


Producing a sentenceMentally plan thisOverall meaning of the message we intend to generateTop-down

Linearization problem

Producing a sentenceProb of transforming general thought/mental image & arranging words in an ordered, linear sequence Usu speak rapidly & accurately but occasionaly find yourself struggling trying to describe several ideas simultaneously While planning a writing assignment you resolve this


Producing a SentenceThe "melody" of an utterance's intonation, rhythm, & emphasisMust plan this during speech productionCan be used to clarify an ambiguous message May reflect diff features of speaker/utterance: emotional state; whether it's a ?, statement, or command; sarcasm


Speech errorsErrors in which sounds/entire words are rearranged btwn 2/more diff wordsHelpful b/c they reveal ppl's extensive knowledge abt the sounds, structure, & meaning of the lang they're speaking 3 kinds: sound errors, morpheme errors, & word errors Several forms: anticipation error, preservation error, & deletions Occur more often when stimulus includes 2 consonants Likely to create a word vs. a nonwordSeldom create a word that begins w/an unlikely letter sequence Usu the errors occur across items from same categoryShows words we're currently pronouncing influenced by words we've already spoken & words we're planning to speak


Producing discourse Type of discourse in which someone describes a series of actual/fictional events conveyed in a time-related sequence & often emotionally involving Storytellers have a specific goal that must be conveyed but don't completely preplan the org at beginning of story Choose words carefully to present their own actions in a favorable light & try to make it more entertaining Format is unusual--allows speaker to "hold the floor" for extended period in which speaker usu conveys 6 parts of narrative which tend to make it cohesive & well org'd Time-related sequence; emotionally involving; goal to convey; words chosen carefully; entertaining Structure: overview, summary of characters & setting; complicating action; point; resolution; final signal of completion

Common ground

Social context of speechWhen conversationalists share similar background knowledge, schemas, & experiences necessary for mutual understandingImportant part of pragmatics To guarantee convo coherence speakers need to collaborate to make certain they share common ground w/their convo partnersSpeakers should: make sure their listeners are paying attention, avoid ambiguous statements, clarify misunderstandings Use NV lang to clarify message Convo partners become more skilled in comm'ing efficiently w/practice Lexical entrainmentProbs: speakers overestimate listeners' ability to understand message; speakers assume listeners need & want same things they do; time pressure

Lexical entrainment

Common groundPattern 2 comm'ers use when they create & adopt a standard term to refer to an objPpl who work together can quickly & efficiently dvlp this [doctor-patient convos]Fairly natural kind of pragmatic skill (shown in study of ppl w/diff lang's)Speakers freq work collaboratively to agree on names they'll use in a convo


Social context of speechImportant topic of pragmaticsA sentence that requests someone to do somethingThe most polite require more wordsSpeakers often state them in a format that anticipates potential obstacles to complianceOverly elaborate directives may seem insulting Indirect request

Indirect request

DirectivesStated like a request for info, even tho it's really a request for someone to do soemthing/stop doing something[Teacher: "What are you laughing at?"]


Cognitive model of writingYour own assessment of your capabilities in an areaMotivational factor of writing

Working memory

The brief immediate memory for material we're currently processingOur previous knowledge can help us chunk items together to aid this memoryListeners rely on it more than readers (can re-scan the info)Plays important role during reading: large working memory helps quickly process ambiguous sentences, read difficult passages, solve complex verbal probs, understand complicated sentencesPlays central role in cog approach to writingCoordinates our ongoing mental activitiesPhonological loop, Visuospatial sketchpad, central executiveRehearsal: useful for maintaining items hereDecline in this the older you getStereotype threat: interferes w/this--esp on difficult tasks it reduces its capacity; thought suppression also reduces thisNeg info: strains thiss if prob involves denying the antecedent/consequent

Phonological loop

Cognitive model of writingStores limited # of sounds for short period of time in working memoryPpl talk to themseleves as they generate sentences during writing which requires PL

Visuospatial sketchpad

Cognitive model of writingStores both visual & spatial info in working memoryUseful when writers try to visualize the order of the sections of a paper & need to include figures & graphs

Central executive

Cognitive model of writingPart of working memory that integrates info from PL, VS, & episodic buffer Plays role in attention, planning, & coordinating other cog activitiesActive in virtually every phase of writing processIts limited capacity makes writing esp challenging


Planning the writing assignmentGenerate a list of ideas1st stage in planning to writeDifficult & strategic--much diff from many relatively auto lang tasksPpl differ in quality of ideas they generate during this phase: good writers spend more high quality time planning during this phase


Person who actively uses 2 diff langsMultilingualSimultaneous bilingualismSequential bilingualismInterlanguageMore than 1/2 ppl in world are at least somewhat bilingual2 predictors of success of learning 2nd lang: motivation & attitude toward the ppl Advantages: more advanced in school (greater mental flexibility); they can comm in 2 langs; more expertise in 1st lang; more aware names assigned to concepts are arbitrary; selective attention to subtle aspects of a lang task; better at following complicated & changing instructions; creative; pragmatic aspects Disadvantages: (minor) pronunciation; slower processing Experience tip of the tongue effect more freq than monolinguals--greater total # of separate words in semantic memory


BilingualismSomeone who uses more than 2 langsIncluded in bilingual category

Simultaneous bilingualism

BilingualismLearn 2 langs simultaneously during childhood

Sequential bilingualism

BilingualismPerson's native lang = 1st lang & nonnative lang they acquire = 2nd lang


BilingualismNew lang system that allows ppl to produce concepts, sentences, & discourse in the 2nd langPpl don't learn a 2nd lang by simply imitating the new lang


BilingualismKnowledge abt the form & structure of lang1 advantage bilinguals have over monolinguals--they're more aware the names assigned to concepts are arbitrary

Age of acquisition

BilingualismAge at which you begin to learn a 2nd langCritical period hypothesis General issue: do older ppl have more difficulty than younger in mastering a 2nd lang?--varies Influences mastery of phonology: ppl who acquire 2nd lang earlier more likely to produce words like a native speaker Doesn't seem to be related to lang skills when measuring vocabStrongest controversy = grammar (experience in US schools & formal ed)--affects knowledge of grammar if the 2 langs are very diff from each other & speaker hasn't been educated in English

Critical period hypothesis

Age of acquisitionYour ability to acquire a 2nd lang is strictly limited to a specific period of your lifeProposes indiv's who've already reached a specific age (early puberty) will no longer be able to acquire a new lang w/native-like fluencyResearch evidence doesn't support a clear-cut biologically based "deadline" Many studies report a gradual decline in 2nd lang skills as a function of age of acquisition, but none show an abrupt drop at a certain age


Age of acquisitionSounds of a person's speechResearch suggests age of acquisition does influence the mastery of thisPpl who acquire a 2nd lang during early childhood more likely to pronounce words like a native speaker of that lang vs. ppl who acquire it during adulthood more likely to have a foreign accent w/new lang Fairly smooth decline w/age of acquisition (vs. abrupt drop)


Simultaneous interpretersProcess of translating from a text written in 1 lang into a 2nd written lang VS. interpreting


Simultaneous interpretersProcess of translating from a spoken message in 1 lang to spoken lang into a 2nd spoken lang 1 of most challenging linguistic tasks humans can perform--3 working memory tasks at same time