Lower limbs

Tensor fascia lata M. function

Abduction, medial rotation, and flexion of the thigh.Protects the knee joint.

Tensor fascia lata M. innervation

Superior gluteal N. (L4-L5)

Gluteus maximus M. function

Powerful extensor of hip joint.Lateral rotator.Active in rising, sitting, and climbing.

Gluteus maximus M. innervation

Inferior gluteal N. (L5-S2)

Gluteus medius/minimus M. function

Abduction, medial rotation of thigh.Keeps pelvis level when opposing leg is raised.

Gluteus medius/minimus M. innervation

Superior gluteal N. (L5-S1)

Piriformis M. function

Lateral rotator and abductor of the thigh.Keeps femur head in acetabulum.

Piriformis M. innervation

Sacral plexus (S1-S2)

Obturator internus M. function

Lateral rotator of the thigh when extended.Abductor of the thigh when flexed.Stronger than medial rotators.Controls the balance.

Obturator internus M. innervation

L5-S1

Superior/inferior gemellus M. function

Lateral rotator of the thigh when extended.Abductor of the thigh when flexed.Stronger than medial rotators.Controls the balance.

Superior gemellus M. innervation

N. to Obturator int.

Inferior gemellus M. innervation

N. to quadratus femoris.

Quadratus femoris M. function

Lateral rotator of the thigh when extended.Abductor of the thigh when flexed.Stronger than medial rotators.Controls the balance.

Quadratus femoris M. innervation

N. to quadratus femoris

Biceps femoris M. function

Long head: extension at hip.Flexor and lateral rotator at knee joint.*Short head may be absent*

Biceps femoris M. innervation

Long head: tibial N. (L5-S2)Short head: common peroneal N. (S1-S2)

Semitendineous M. function

Extension at hip.Flexion and medial rotation at knee.

Semitendineous M. innveration

tibial N. (L5-S2)

Semimembraneous M. function

Hip extensor.Knee flexor.Medial rotator.

Semimembraneous M. innervation

tibial N.

Adductor magus M. function

Powerful adductor.Lateral rotator (part inserted to linea aspera)Medial rotator at knee joint.Extensor at hip joint.

Adductor magnus M. innervation

tibial N. to the part inserted to linea asperaobturator N. to the part inserted to adductor tubercle (puberty and conception)

Plantaris M. function

Best plantar flexors.Active in walking.

Plantaris M., Soleus M., and Gastrocnemius M. innervation

tibial N. (S1-S2)

Tibialis posterior M. function

Active in plantar flexion.Supination of the foot.

Tibialis posterior M. innervation

tibial N. (L4-L5)

Flexor hallusis longus M. function

Active in plantar flexion.Supination of the foot.

Flexor hallusis longus M. innveration

tibial N. (S1-S2)

Flexor digitorum longus M.function

Active in plantar flexion.Supination of the foot.

Flexor digitorum longus M. innervation

tibial N. (S1-S3)

Popliteus M. function

Flexion of the knee.Unlocking of the knee joint.Protection of lateral meniscus.

Popliteus M. innervation

tibial N. (L4-S1)

Peroneus longus/brevis M. function

Strongest pronators of the foot.

Peroneus longus/brevis M. innervation

superficial peroneal N. (L5-S1)

What passes through the suprapiriformis hiatus?

Superior gluteal vessels

What passes through the infrapiriformis hiatus?

Inferior gluteal vesselsInternal pudendal artery and veinPudendal N.Posterior cutaneous N. of the thighSciatic N.N. to obturator internus