chapter 10 nutrition

sports anemia is not a _______ iron defTrue False

true

_______ ________� a dangerous accumulation of body heat with a loss of fluid.

HEAT STROKE

Symptoms: of _______ _______a. Clumsiness, confusionb . Body temp above 104�Fc. Nausea, dizziness, headache, stumblingd. Sudden cessation of sweating (hot, dry skin)

heat stroke

_____ ______treatment: stop activity, sip cold fluids, seek shade, and ask for help

heat stroke

a. Moderate physical activity, such as easy jogging, uses glycogen __________.

slowly

How long should one continue to exercise in order to begin using fat as fuel _____ minutes

20 minutes

� First 20 minutes of moderate activity � about _/5 of available glycogen used up.

1

� A person who exercises for longer than 20 minutes begins to use less___________ and more fat for fuel

glucose

� Glycogen depletion occurs after ~_____ hours of vigorous exercise.

2

� After that (2 hours of vig activity), vigorous activity can continue for a short time as the liver converts lactate and some amino acids into _________. Finally, ___________ occurs which brings the nervous system almost to a halt, making intensive activity impossible.

glucosehypoglycemia

Muscles must begin to rely on glucose which (unlike fat) can be partially broken down by_________ __________.

anaerobic metabolism

__________ breakdown of glucose yields energy to muscle tissue when energy demands outstrip the body�s ability to provide energy ___________, but it does so by spending the muscle�s glycogen reserves.

Anaerobicaerobically

anaerobic metabolism prduces _______ ______

lactic acid

Does Caffeine seems to provide a physical boost during endurance sports?

yes (2 cups appx an hour before activity)

does caffine have an effect on athletes in short-duration sports?

Little or no effect

_____________ _________training enhances the ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to the muscles. With this, the heart becomes stronger, breathing becomes more efficient, and the health of the entire body improves.

Cardiorespiratory endurance

cardio respiratory endurance training gives the ability to perform large muscle dynamic exercise of moderate to high intensity for ___________ period of time.

prolonged

� -the person will be able to become better able to perform it after each session with moe flexibility, more strength, and more endurance after ________ __________ training

cardio respiratory endurance

7. How many calories of glycogen does the typical person store?

Glycogen stores are limited to less than 2,000 calories of energy.�

7. How many calories of fat does a person store?

Fat stores are theoretically unlimited and can provide more than70,000 calories and fuel hours of activity.�

How long can glycogen stores last during vigorous activity?

occurs after ~2 hours of vigorous exercise.

protein recommendations for Endurance athlete ____-____gms/kg/day (need extra protein for energy)Intake for power (strength or speed)-_____to ____ gms/kg/day (needs more protein to build muscle not energy)

1.2-1.6 gms1.6-1.7

Why does vitamin E merit special attention for active people?\Vitamin E is a potent fat soluble _______ that vigorously defends cell membranes against __________ damage.

antioxidantoxidative

Vitamin __ is an antioxidant and some athletes take megadoses of vitamin __ to prevent oxidative damage to muscles.

E E

During prolonged, high-intensity activity, the muscle�s consumption of oxygen increases _______fold or more, enhancing the production of free radicals.

ten

� Products that supposedly enhance performance, although non actually do so; the term _________ implies �energy giving�

ergogenic

� Most dangerous and illegal __________ pracices is the taking of anabolic steroid hormones.

ergogenic

� Most dangerous and illegal ________ pracices is the taking of anabolic steroid hormones.

ergogenic

What are the 4 essential (components) of fitness?

flexibility, muscle strength, muscle endurance, and cardiorespiratory endurance

________ is produced by the anaerobic breakdown of glucose during intense activity.

a. Lactate

Lactate travels from _______ to ___________ where it is converted back to __________.

muscles to liverglucose

When rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of clearance, intense activity can be maintained for only one to _____ minutes.

three

What are the health benefits of physical activity (see text pg. 369)?

More restful sleep, better nutritional health, improved body composition, improved bone density, enhanced resistance to colds and other infections diseases, stronger circulation and lung function, lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease incidence and severity of anxiety and depression, and larger life and higher quality of life in later years.