Chem Ch 15

Bronsted Acid

proton donor

Bronstead base

proton acceptor

conjugate base

the species that remains after the acid has donated its proton

conjugate acid

the species formed when a base accepts a proton

amphoteric

can be an acid or a base (example: water)

ion constant of water

Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 1.0 x10 -14 at 25deg C

pH & pOH equations

pH = - log [H30+] or [H+]pOH = - log [OH]pH + pOH = 14

strong acids

HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4the congugate base has no measureable stregnth

strong bases

bases that ionize completely in watersoluble hydroxides fit this descriptionLiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, & Ca(OH)2

percent ionization

ionized acid concentration at equilibrium / initial concentration of acid x 100% [H3O+] / [HA]initial x 100%

salts that produce basic solutions

a weak acid and a STRONG basecation is neutral - alkali metal or alkaline earth metalanion is the conjugate base of a weak acid (HCOONa)

salts that produce neutral solutions

strong acid and a strong basecation is alkali metal or alkaline earth metal - can neither accept or donate a proton (Na+)anion is the conjugate base of a strong acid - has no measureable strength (only 5 choices)

salts that produce acidic solutions

strong acid and a weak baseanion is neutral (the conjugate base of a strong acid)cation is acidic - conjugate acid of a weak base (NH4+) OR cation is a small highly charged metal (Al3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Bi3+, Be2+) indirectly through water molecule

the relationship between Ka and Kb

Ka x Kb = Kw

salt

an ionic compound formed by the reaction between an acid and a basestrong electrolytes - they completely dissociate when dissolved in water

salt hydrolysis

the reaction of the anion and/or cation of a salt with water

Lewis acid

electron pair acceptor

Lewis base

electron pair donor

Lewis acid-base reaction

does not produce a salt and water, it produces a new bondeverything in bronsted would fit here, but reverse isn't trueoxidation-reduction reactions (redox)

Ka

[H30+] [CH3COO-] / [CH3COOH]

Kb

[CH3COOH] [OH-] / [CH3COO-]

hydrohalic acids

acids of the halogensweakest to strongest goes down periodic table: HF, HCl, HBr, HI

oxoacids

acids that have oxygen in them1. different central atoms in the same group and same oxidation # increases bottom to top (HClO3 is stronger than (HBrO3)2. same central atom, but different # of attached groups (HClO4>HClO3>HClO2>HClO) increases with more attached

carboxylic acids

-COOH