Very drastic pruning is called ___________ and should be avoided at all times.


To make the canopy of a shrub less dense, ________________ should be used.

thinning out

When cane cuttings are used for vegetative propogation this is a form of _______________.

stem cuttings

Two advantages of asexual or vegetative propagation are: _____________________________ and______________________________________.

All offspring are true-to-typeand the time to flowering is reduced

__________________is the concept that every cell in a plant has the potential to reproduce the entireplant.


________________ is a method to control (manage) pest that should be used as a last resort in a sustainable agricultural integrated pest management system.


If you find sooty mold on the leaves of your plant, ___________ are likely present.


Bacillus thuringensis is an agent which causes diseases in ___________.


______________ is NOT a way to minimize water loss from cuttings.

placement in the sun

__ is a stage in seed germination.


Holly seeds have immature embryos, and if one wishes to make them germinate one could___________________.

excise the embryos and put them in tissue culture

_________________ isthe cold, moist storage for 4-12 weeks required to break physiological dormancyof seeds.


________________ isthe plant hormone that is used to stimulate adventitious shoot formation onroot cuttings.


In a angiosperm seed the typical genetic condition of the endosperm is ___.


_________ layering covers the stem in multiple places along the stem (i.e., the stem is laid along the ground and some portions are buried while other portions are left exposed).


In ________ grafting the stock and scion are of equal size.


Imbibition means ___________

hydration of seed.

To propagate plants vegetatively the part must regenerate______________.

missing parts

__________________ is aplant part that when removed from the parent plant and placed under the properenvironmental conditions forms adventitious roots or shoots.


All budding methods requirethe bark to be slipping except one and that is the __________ bud


______cause yellow mosaic or mottling of leaves.


In _________________ grafting the stock and scion are of equal size


___ bore into roots and may cause the roots to have a knotted appearance.


_____the best time to prunespring flowering shrubs

just after flowering

When using a leaf section cutting, each section used should contain at least one _______________.


Tomato seeds will not germinate in the fruit and must be extracted and cleaned for them to germinate because of inhibitors in the flesh of the fruit. What is the advantage of this, if any?

prevents vivipary

____ is probably the most common number of ploidy found in plants.


If you prune a shrub in your front yard to look like a sculpture of you, it would be called a(an) ___.


______ is the deposition of pollen on the stigma.


_______ is the loss of nutrients and other compounds from inside the leaves and stems.


To properly prune a large limb on a tree, with wide crotch angles, the first cut is made_________.

on the bottom of the limb about 6 inches out.

To propagate plants vegetatively the part must regenerate______________.

missing parts

All budding methods require the bark to be slipping except one and that is the __________ bud.


____________ are microorganisms that invade, infect and cause damage to the organism.


If a nurseryman has a variegated monocot plant where only the very edge of the leaf is white. This indicates that the ___________ layer is most likely mutated.


________________ is the grafting method where the top of the stock is cut-off, the bark is peeled back on the side, and a scion is inserted under the bark,

bark inlay

If one piles soil around the base of a shrub to induce roots to form at the base of the limb, this would be called _________ layering.