Management Chapter Six


A change in behavior acquired through experience.

Classical Conditioning?

The process of modifying behavior so that an unconditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response.Dog Bell Food.

Classical Conditioning on humans?

Humans are more complex.Behavioral enviornments are complex.Human decision making is complex.

Operant Conditioning?

Modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors.Financial, social, and nonfinancial reinforcement.

Positive Consequenes?

Results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable.

Negative Consequences?

Results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive.


The attempt to strengthen or develop desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences.


The attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences.

Continuous Reinforcement?

Reinforcer follows ever response.High steady rate of reinforcement.Early satiation.Behavior weakens raidly when reinforcement disappears.

Intermittent Reinforcement?

Reinforcer does not follow every response.HIgh frequencies of responding.

Fixed Ratio Reinforcement?

A fixed number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs.Tends to produce high rate rate of response that is vigorous and steady.

Variable Ratio Reinforcement?

A varying or random number of responses emitted for each reinforcement.High rate of response that is vigorous and steady.

Fixed Interval Reinforcement?

The period of time reinforcement.Uneven response pattern.

Variable Interval Reinforcement?

Varying or random periods of time reveal reinforcement.High rate of response that is vigorous and steady and resistant to extinction.


The attempt to weaken behavior by attaching no consequences to it.

Task-Specific Self-Efficacy?

An individual's beliefs and expectations about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively.Developed by Albert Bandura.

Sources of Self-Efficacy?

Prior experiences, Behavior models, Persuasion, Assesment.

Jung's Theory implications?

Introverted versus Extroverted.Personality functions of intuition, sensing, thinking, and feeling.


Process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior.Crystallize sense of purpose and mission.


Proper goal setting traits.Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-Bound, Prioritized.

Goal Setting Effects?

Increase work and motivation.Reduce the role of stress.Improve the accuracy and validity of performance evaluation.


Management by objectives, a goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers.

Performance Management?

A process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance.

Performance Appraisal?

The evaluation of a person's performance.


Overlooking aspects of a person's actual performance.


Poor performance measures.


Inaccurate definition of the expected job performance.

360 Feedback?

A process of self-evaluation, evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers.

Effective Performance Appraisal?

Validity, Reliability, Responsiveness, Flexibility, Equitibility.


People begin to believe that they deserve rewards despite non-improved behavior.

Correcting Poor Performance?

The cause of poor performance must be identified.The source of the personal problem must be identified.A plan of action must be developed.


An informational cue indicating the extent to which peers in the same situation behave in a similar fashion.


An informational cue indicating the degree to which an individual behaves the same way in other situations.


An informational cue indicating the frequency of behavior over time.

Attribution Theory?

Managers make attributions (infereneces) concerning employees' behavior and performance.


A work relationship that encourages development and career-enhancement for people moving through the career cycle.