A pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.


Horney also believed that the need for_____, not for sex, is the prime motive in human existence


Jung's name for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past

The collective unconscious

In Adler's individual psychology, people are motivated by ____ and ____, thus, perfection, not pleasure, is the key motivator in human life.

purposes and goals

_______ argued we can take genetic inheritance and environmental experiences and act upon them creatively to become the person they want to be.


Adler's term for the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities


Maslow referred to humanistic psychology as ________ psychology because it stressed neither Freudian drives nor the stimulus�response principles of behaviorism.

�third force�

Maslow believed we can learn the most about personality from the very best examples of human beings �- ______


Rogers believed that we are all born with the raw ingredients of a fulfilling life. We simply need the _____ to thrive

right conditions

Rogers's term for being accepted, valued, and treated positively regardless of one's behavior.

Unconditional positive regard

Per Rogers, standards we must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others.

Conditions of worth

Rogers's theory includes the idea that we develop this conscious representation of who we are and who we wish to become, during childhood


Rogers believed that the person must experience a relationship that includes three essential qualities:

unconditional positive regard, empathy, genuineness.

Theory that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses.

Trait theory

Who asserted that if you want to know something about someone, you should �just ask him� (or her)?


Approach reflecting the idea that if a trait is important to people in real life, it ought to be represented in the natural language people use to talk about one another.


Supertraits in the five-factor model:

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism. Use the acronym OCEAN

One alternative, the HEXACO model, incorporates a sixth dimension into the big five:


A person's assessment of his or her own level of positive affect relative to negative affect

Subjective well-being

_____, (such as positive or negative moods) are briefer experiences than traits.


______ and life story perspectives stress that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story


Murray famously stated that �the history of the organism is the organism,� a _____ viewpoint

Personological or life story.

Murray's analysis of Hitler was the first �______ profile,�


Murray & Morgan's personality assessment test involving content analysis, a procedure in which a psychologist takes the person's story and codes it for different images, words

Thematic Apperception Test (or TAT)

McAdams developed THIS approach to identity, the idea that each of us has a unique history which represents our memories of what makes us who we are.

life story

A motive from the enduring concern for warm interpersonal encounters for their own sake.

The intimacy motive

A means of inquiry in which the personality psychologist attempts to apply a personality theory to a single person's life


This perspective on personality emphasizes conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals.

Social cognitive

Bandura took the basic tenets of behaviorism and added a recognition of the role of______ ______ in determining behavior.

mental processes

Bandura's term for the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality

reciprocal determinism

Social cognitive theorists believe that we acquire a wide range of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings, so ________ shape our personalities


Internal locus of control is:

A sense of behavioral control as coming from inside the person

External locus of control

A sense of behavioral control as coming from outside the person

Belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task


This quality of traits suggests that a person should behave consistently in different situations�in other words:

cross-situational consistency

Mischel's view that personality and behavior often vary considerably from one context to another.


The narrower and more limited a trait is, the more/less likely it will predict behavior.


Personality traits exert a stronger/weaker influence on an individual's behavior when situational influences are less powerful.


A situation that contains many clear cues about how a person is supposed to behave.

A very powerful situation

Even if situations determine behavior,_____ play a role in determining which situations people choose.


Mischel conceptualizes personality as a set of interconnected

cognitive affective processing systems (CAPS)

CAPS is concerned not with what personality is, but

how it works

Personality theory that focuses on the interactions of individuals with their environments

Social cognitive theory

An extraverted person's left _____ _____ is more responsive to positive stimuli and in neurotic individuals it's responsive to negative

frontal cortex

Extraverts'__________ are more responsive to seeing happy faces than introverts'


Eysenck's approach to extraversion/introversion based on this brain structure:

reticular activation system

According to Eysenck, outward differences in behavior reflect different _______ ______ ____

arousal regulation strategies

According to Eysenck, extraverts wake up in the morning__________,whereas introverts start out _____ the optimal level

underaroused / above

Gray posited that two neurological systems underly personality:

behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS)

The _______, ________, and the anterior cingulated cortex appear to serve together as a system for affective style

amygdala, the prefrontal cortex

Neurotransmitter is a factor in BAS or extraversion


Early encounters with warm caregivers and positive life experiences can promote dopamine production and receptors, making the brain sensitive to ______ and setting the stage for ______________

rewards / extraversion

If traits predispose particular, consistent behaviors, thoughts, and emotional responses, traits may play a role in forging particular ___________ in the brain

habitually used pathways

One problem with self-report tests is a factor called

social desirability.

A type of self-report test that identifies two groups that are known to be different, and the differentiation is not related in any obvious way to the test purpose


Test showing pictures to elicit designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality.

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Test that directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits

Self-report test

Most widely used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

Self-report test geared to assessing the five-factor model: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism

Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory�Revised (NEO-PI-R)

A test item has_______ if it seems on the surface to fit the trait in question.

face validity

The tendency to see ourselves in such vague descriptions is called the

Barnum effect

A personality test that presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe it or tell a story about it

A projective test