Psychology 101 final test chapters 14,15,16

Medical model

it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease


distinguishing one illness from another


apparent causation and developmental history of an illness


forecast about the probable course of an illness.


difference from the norm

maladaptive behavior

when it interferes with everyday functioning

personal distress

another factor assessed in diagnosis of psychological disorders based on an individuals report of their internal emotions.


study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population


the percentage of a population that exhibit a disorder during a specified period of time.

anxiety disorders

class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety

generalized anxiety disorders

marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat

phobic disorder

marked by an irrational and persistant fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger.

panic disorder

characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly


fear of going out the public places although it seems like it's a phobia, it's actually more like a complication of panic disorders


marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)

PTSD (post traumatic stres disorders)

involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event.

concordance rates

percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder

somatoform disorders

physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors

somatization disorder

history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin

conversion disorder

characterized by a significant loss of physical function (with no apparent organic basis) usually in a single organ system.


characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness.

histrionic personality charateristics

self-centered, suggestible, excitable, highly emotional, and overly dramatic

dissociative disorders

class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consiousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity.

dissociative amnesia

sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting

dissociative fugue

lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity

dissociative identity disorder

coexistance in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different personalities aka multiple personality disorder

mood disorders

class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes

major depressive disorder

people show persistant feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure

dysthymic disorder

consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify diagnosis on a major depressive episode

bipolar disorder

characterized by the experiece of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression

cyclothymic disorder

when they exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance.

learned helplessness model

derived by martin seligman depression is caused by passive giving up behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events

schitzophrenic disorder

marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior


false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality.


sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input.

paranoid schitzophrenia

dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur.

catatonic schitzophrenia

motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity

disorganized schitzophrenia

particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen

undifferentiated schitzophrenia

people who don't fit into the three other types of schitzophrenia marked by idiosyncratic measures of schitzophrenic symptoms

negative symptoms

involves behavioral deficits such as flattened emotions, social withdrawl, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.

positive symptoms

involves behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas

expressed emotion

the degree to which a relative of a patient displays highly critical or emotionally over involved attitudes toward the patient.

personality disorders

marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning.

antisocial personality disorder

marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms.


a legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness

involunatry commitment

people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will

cultural bound disorders

syndromes found only in a few cultural groups

eating disorders

severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy effors to control weight

anorexia nervosa

intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight and use of dangerous measures to lose weight

bulimia nervousa

habitually engaging in out of control overeating followed by unhealthy measures to remove it such as laxative abuse, vommiting, or excessive exercise

binge eating disorder

distress inducing eating binges that are not accompanied by purging fasting or excessive exercise

representativeness heuristic

basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is the the typical prototype of that event. ie thinking that mental illness isn't very common because our idea of mental illness is a person in a straitjacket


the coexistance of two or more disorders

conjunction fallacy

belief that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either alone

availability heuristic

basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with witch relevant instances come to mind

Thomas Szasz

a particularly vocal critic of the medical model SZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZS to be able to differentiate between the sounds made when pronouncing that, you have to be a critic of the vocal sounds.

david rosenhan

prooved that even mental health professionals have a hard time distinguishing the normal from un-normalprooved that determing mental illness is not as easy as determining if there is a ROSE iN HANd or not.

martin seligman

preparedness explains things like why phobias of snakes are more common than phobias of rubber duckiesLearned helplessness model explains depression as a giving up because the subject is unavoidably administered adverse things ie, bad things always happen to themseLiGMan Learned Gelplessness Model

Susan Nolen Hoeksema

Women experience depression more because they're more likely to ruminate, they are subjected to more stress, and have female problemsRuminate sounds like HOEKy SEMAntics for thinking about your problems

nancy andreasen

thinks that the current classification scheme for schitzophrenia isn't useful and has thusly catergorzied the types into negative and positive symptoms.Nancy ANDreaSen Negative AND poSitive

clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists

specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.


specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

insight therapies

involve verbal interactions inteded to enhance clients' self knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior


therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconsious conflicts motives and defenses through techniques such as free association and dream analysis tranference

free association

spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible

dream analysis

the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the clients dreams


the thereapists attempts to explain the inner significance of the clients thoughts feelings memories and behaviors


largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy


occurs when clients unconsiously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical realtionships in their lives

client centered therapy

insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy.

positive psychology

therapy and reserch used to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existance

group therapy

simultaneous psychological treatment of several clients in a group

spontaneous remission

recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment

behavior therapies

involve the application of learning principles to direct efforts to change client's maladaptive beahviors.

systematic desensitization

behavior therapy used to reduce phobic clients' anxiety responses through counterconditioning.

aversion therapy

behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undersirable response

social skills training

behavioral therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasize modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping.

cognitive behavioral treatments

use varied combos of verbal interventions and behavioral modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive behaviors or patterns of thinking.

cognitive therapy

uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders

biomedical therapies

physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders.


treatment of mental disorders with meds

anti anxiety drugs

relieve tension apprehension and nervousness

antipsychotic drugs

used to gradually reduce psychotic sypmtoms including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions

tardive dyskinesia

neaurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements of the mouth tongue face hands or feet


gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression

mood stabilizers

drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorder.

electroconvusive (shock) therapy

a biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convusions.

transcranial magnetic stimulation

technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain.

deep brain stimulation

a thin electrode is surgically implanted in the brain and connected to an implanted pulse generator so that various electrical currents can be delivered to brain tissue adjacent to the electrode


the practice of thearpy which involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system

mental hospital

medical institution specializing in providing inpatient care for psychological disorders


tranferring the treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community based facilities that emphasize outpatient care.

regression toward the mean

when a person scores at one extreme and then when retested they score more average

placebo effects

occur when peoples expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive a fake treatment

carl rogers

client centered therapyMr ROGERS lets the train direct where the episode will go.

Joseph Wolpe

Systematic desensitization: heirarchy, relaxation, completeing levelswhile relaxingThe WOLf/PE has to climb the mountain before it can get the mountain goat and eat it so that he can relax.

Aaron Beck

Cognitive therapyTo follow the strangers BECKon would be an error in thinking, something that AARON would strategically fix

Dl.orothea Dix

The woman who reformed the hospitalization of mental patients so that they were no longer in jail or in the poorhouse Dorothea says "There's no place like a mental hospital, there's no place like a mental hospital

social psychology

the branch of pshchology that's concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others

person perception

the process of forming impressions of others


widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group

Illusory correlation

when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen


a group that one belongs to and identifies with


a group that one does not belong to or identify with


inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behaviors and their own bahaviors

internal attributions

ascribe the causes of behavoir to personal disposiitons, traits, abilities, and feelings

external attribution

ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental contriants

fundamental attribution error

observer's bias in favor of intermal attribution in explaining others behavior

defensive attribution

tendency to blame the victim for their misfortune so that one feels less likelt to be victimized in a similar way

self-serving bias

tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors


putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group membership


putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the group one belongs to

interpersonal attraction

positive feelings toward another

matching hypothesis

proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners


liking those who show that they like you

passionate love

complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstacy of intense emotion

companionate love

warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwinded with one's own


warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship


and intent to maintain a realtionship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise


positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought


person who sengds a communication


person to whom the message is sent


the info transmitted


the medium through wich the message is sent

cognitive dissonance

related congitions are inconsistent... or contradict each other


when people yeild to real or imagined social pressure


form of complience that occurs when people follow direcer commands, usually from somene in a position of authority

social roles

widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave


two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent

bystander effect

people are less likely to provide help when they are in groups than when they are alone

social loafing

reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves

group polarization

when group discussion strengthens a groups dominant point of view and produces a shift towad a more extreme decision in that direction


when members of a cohesive group emphasize comcurrence at the exxpense of critical thinging in arriving at a decision

group cohesiveness

the strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself


negative attitude held toward members of a group


behaviong differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group

foot-in-the-door technique

getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later

reciprocity norm

the rule that we should pay back in kind what we recieve from others

low ball technique

getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed

Solomon Asch


Ellen Berscheid and Elain Hatfield

Passionate versus companionate love

Cindy Hazen and Philip Shaver

Claimed that adults will have the same type of attachments in their realtionships as they did with their mother in infancy

Fritz Heider

Attribution internal or external

Irving Janis


Stanley Milgram


Bernart Weiner

Attribution stable or unstable

Philip Zimbardo

Prision experiment

Leon Festinger

Dissonance theory