it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
distinguishing one illness from another
apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
forecast about the probable course of an illness.
difference from the norm
when it interferes with everyday functioning
another factor assessed in diagnosis of psychological disorders based on an individuals report of their internal emotions.
study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
the percentage of a population that exhibit a disorder during a specified period of time.
class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
generalized anxiety disorders
marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
marked by an irrational and persistant fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger.
characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
fear of going out the public places although it seems like it's a phobia, it's actually more like a complication of panic disorders
marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
PTSD (post traumatic stres disorders)
involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event.
percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors
history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
characterized by a significant loss of physical function (with no apparent organic basis) usually in a single organ system.
characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness.
histrionic personality charateristics
self-centered, suggestible, excitable, highly emotional, and overly dramatic
class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consiousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity.
sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity
dissociative identity disorder
coexistance in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different personalities aka multiple personality disorder
class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes
major depressive disorder
people show persistant feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify diagnosis on a major depressive episode
characterized by the experiece of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
when they exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance.
learned helplessness model
derived by martin seligman depression is caused by passive giving up behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events
marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality.
sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input.
dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur.
motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen
people who don't fit into the three other types of schitzophrenia marked by idiosyncratic measures of schitzophrenic symptoms
involves behavioral deficits such as flattened emotions, social withdrawl, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.
involves behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas
the degree to which a relative of a patient displays highly critical or emotionally over involved attitudes toward the patient.
marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning.
antisocial personality disorder
marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms.
a legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness
people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will
cultural bound disorders
syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy effors to control weight
intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight and use of dangerous measures to lose weight
habitually engaging in out of control overeating followed by unhealthy measures to remove it such as laxative abuse, vommiting, or excessive exercise
binge eating disorder
distress inducing eating binges that are not accompanied by purging fasting or excessive exercise
basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is the the typical prototype of that event. ie thinking that mental illness isn't very common because our idea of mental illness is a person in a straitjacket
the coexistance of two or more disorders
belief that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either alone
basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with witch relevant instances come to mind
a particularly vocal critic of the medical model SZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZS to be able to differentiate between the sounds made when pronouncing that, you have to be a critic of the vocal sounds.
prooved that even mental health professionals have a hard time distinguishing the normal from un-normalprooved that determing mental illness is not as easy as determining if there is a ROSE iN HANd or not.
preparedness explains things like why phobias of snakes are more common than phobias of rubber duckiesLearned helplessness model explains depression as a giving up because the subject is unavoidably administered adverse things ie, bad things always happen to themseLiGMan Learned Gelplessness Model
Susan Nolen Hoeksema
Women experience depression more because they're more likely to ruminate, they are subjected to more stress, and have female problemsRuminate sounds like HOEKy SEMAntics for thinking about your problems
thinks that the current classification scheme for schitzophrenia isn't useful and has thusly catergorzied the types into negative and positive symptoms.Nancy ANDreaSen Negative AND poSitive
clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists
specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.
specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
involve verbal interactions inteded to enhance clients' self knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior
therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconsious conflicts motives and defenses through techniques such as free association and dream analysis tranference
spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible
the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the clients dreams
the thereapists attempts to explain the inner significance of the clients thoughts feelings memories and behaviors
largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
occurs when clients unconsiously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical realtionships in their lives
client centered therapy
insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy.
therapy and reserch used to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existance
simultaneous psychological treatment of several clients in a group
recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment
involve the application of learning principles to direct efforts to change client's maladaptive beahviors.
behavior therapy used to reduce phobic clients' anxiety responses through counterconditioning.
behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undersirable response
social skills training
behavioral therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasize modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping.
cognitive behavioral treatments
use varied combos of verbal interventions and behavioral modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive behaviors or patterns of thinking.
uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders
physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders.
treatment of mental disorders with meds
anti anxiety drugs
relieve tension apprehension and nervousness
used to gradually reduce psychotic sypmtoms including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions
neaurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements of the mouth tongue face hands or feet
gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression
drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorder.
electroconvusive (shock) therapy
a biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convusions.
transcranial magnetic stimulation
technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain.
deep brain stimulation
a thin electrode is surgically implanted in the brain and connected to an implanted pulse generator so that various electrical currents can be delivered to brain tissue adjacent to the electrode
the practice of thearpy which involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system
medical institution specializing in providing inpatient care for psychological disorders
tranferring the treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community based facilities that emphasize outpatient care.
regression toward the mean
when a person scores at one extreme and then when retested they score more average
occur when peoples expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive a fake treatment
client centered therapyMr ROGERS lets the train direct where the episode will go.
Systematic desensitization: heirarchy, relaxation, completeing levelswhile relaxingThe WOLf/PE has to climb the mountain before it can get the mountain goat and eat it so that he can relax.
Cognitive therapyTo follow the strangers BECKon would be an error in thinking, something that AARON would strategically fix
The woman who reformed the hospitalization of mental patients so that they were no longer in jail or in the poorhouse Dorothea says "There's no place like a mental hospital, there's no place like a mental hospital
the branch of pshchology that's concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others
the process of forming impressions of others
widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group
when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen
a group that one belongs to and identifies with
a group that one does not belong to or identify with
inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behaviors and their own bahaviors
ascribe the causes of behavoir to personal disposiitons, traits, abilities, and feelings
ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental contriants
fundamental attribution error
observer's bias in favor of intermal attribution in explaining others behavior
tendency to blame the victim for their misfortune so that one feels less likelt to be victimized in a similar way
tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors
putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group membership
putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the group one belongs to
positive feelings toward another
proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
liking those who show that they like you
complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstacy of intense emotion
warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwinded with one's own
warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship
and intent to maintain a realtionship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise
positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought
person who sengds a communication
person to whom the message is sent
the info transmitted
the medium through wich the message is sent
related congitions are inconsistent... or contradict each other
when people yeild to real or imagined social pressure
form of complience that occurs when people follow direcer commands, usually from somene in a position of authority
widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave
two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent
people are less likely to provide help when they are in groups than when they are alone
reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves
when group discussion strengthens a groups dominant point of view and produces a shift towad a more extreme decision in that direction
when members of a cohesive group emphasize comcurrence at the exxpense of critical thinging in arriving at a decision
the strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself
negative attitude held toward members of a group
behaviong differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group
getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
the rule that we should pay back in kind what we recieve from others
low ball technique
getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed
Ellen Berscheid and Elain Hatfield
Passionate versus companionate love
Cindy Hazen and Philip Shaver
Claimed that adults will have the same type of attachments in their realtionships as they did with their mother in infancy
Attribution internal or external
Attribution stable or unstable