Soc 3


Category of people that have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on basis of phenotype


Collection of people, put together in terms of culture, nationality


making a judgement on someone, an attitude


Behavior, an action


Over generalize and apply to a whole group of people

Modern racism

person thinks racism is a thing of the past and everyone has gotten their fair share


a group whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination


a group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society


law that prevented 2 different races from marrying each other

one drop rule

idea that if you had black blood you were considered black

Assimilation theory

Changing your ideals into something that reflects the core culture of the mainstream culture

Gordon's 7 Types of assimilation

Marital, Civil, Racial, Acculturation, Structural, behavior, attitude

Marital assimilation

widespread intermarriage

Civil assimilation

absence of values and power struggles

Racial formation

actions of leadership define race and ethnicity in the US

Behavior assimilation

absence of prejudice and discrimination


absence of prejudice and discrimination


newcomers adapt to new cultural norms

Contact hypothesis

Contact between divergent groups should be positive as long as group members: Have equal status, pursue same goals, cooperate with one another to achieve goals, recieve positive feedback while interacting


Refers to biological differences between females and males


refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males


Treating someone as an object, more than a whole person

Gender the cultural dimension

Most "Sex differences" are socially constructed "Gender differences" , gender is embedded in the images, ideas, and language of a society. Gender is used as a means to divide up work, allocate resources and distribute power


The subordination of one sex based on assumed superiority of the other sex

Sexism directed at women has three components

Negative attitudes, Steretypical beliefs that reinforce the prejudice, and Discrimination

Social significance of gender

Gender stereotypes hold that men and women are different in attributes, behavior and aspirations


Strong, proud, aggressive, selfish, logical, disorganized, courageous, confident, independent, ambitious

Women tend to be

emotional, talkative, affectionate, patient, romantic, moody, cautious, creative, thrifty

3 factors of gender division of labor

type of subsistence base, supply of and demand for labor, extent to which womens childrearing activites are compatible with certain types of work

Parent and gender socialization

children's clothing and toys reflect their parents gender expectations. Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender.

Peers and gender socialization

Peers help children learn gender appropriate and inappropriate behavior, during adolescence peers often are more effective at gender socialization than adults, college student peers play an important role in career choices and establishment of long term, intimate relationships

Schools and gender socialization

Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students, Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender

Sports and gender socialization

Guys = Football, Girls = cheerleader

Mass media and gender socialization

Male characters typically are more aggressive, construct, and direct. Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way

Traditional family

A group of people who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption, live together, are an economic unit, and bear and raise children

New Family

Relationships in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group.


Multiple spouses


One man, 2 or more women


one woman, 2 or more men


trace family line from father


trace family line from mother


power is shared, all equal


marriage within a specific tribe or similar social unit

Functionalist theory on family

Sexual regulation, socialization, economic and psychological support for members, provision of social status

Conflict perspective of families

Families in capitalist economies are similar to workers in a factory, women dominated at home same way workers are dominated at factories

Symbolic Interactionist Perspective of family

Patterns of communication, the meanings people give to roles and events, individiual interpretations of family interactions

Education and religion

powerful forces in contemporary societies. impart essential values, beliefs, and knowledge. grapple with issues of societal stability and social change, reflecting even as they attempt to shape it

Manifest functions of education

socialization, transmission of culture, social control, social placement, change and innovation

Latent functions of education

production of social networks, restricting some activities, creation of generation gap

Conflict perspective of Education

Education is vehicle for reproducing existing class relationships. Unequal funding is a source of inequality in education. access to colleges and universities is determined not only by academic record but also by the ability to pay

Symbolic interactionist perspective of Education

self fulfilling prophecy, students labeled as gifted may achieve at a higher level because of the label, girls attribute success to effort while boys learn to attribute success to intelligence and ability


seeks to answer important questions such as why we exist, why people suffer and die, what happens when we die. Comprised of beliefs, symbols, rituals. All known groups over the past 100,000 years have some form of religion


aspects of life that are extraordinary


aspect of everyday life

Functionalist perspective of religion

Provide meaning in life, Promote social cohesion, provide social control

Conflict perspective of religion

religion is the opiate of the people. Weber argued that religion could be a catalyst to produce social change