c. 15 vocab


development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time


rock layers

natural selection

mechanism for descent of modification


trait that makes individuals successful in the enviroment


measure of an individuas heredity contribution to the next generation


the remains or traces of an organism that died a long time ago


principle that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks if the layer haven't been disturb

relative age`

its age compared to that of other fossils

absolute age

time since formation of the rock


study of the locations of organisms around the world

homologous structures

species that have similar structure and a common ancestor

analagous structures

species that have similar functions but do not have a common ancestor

vestigial structures

structure that serves no purpose, or function, but resembles structures with functional roles in related organisms. ex: tailbone


the relationships by ancestry among groups of organisms

convergent evolution

process in which different species evolve similar traits

divergent evolution

process in which the descendants of a single ancestor diversify into species that each fit different parts of the enviroment

adaptive radiation

pattern of givergence/ evolutionary pattern in which many species evolve from a single ancestrol species

artificial selection

the selective breeding of organisms for specific desirable characteristics


when two or more species have evolved adaptions to eachother's influence