A man that has been surgically castrated before puberty. In church/opera women were not allowed to sing but they still wanted the high parts of the songs --> men with high voices but vocal strength. Were perceived as sexual icons. Very common in Baroque era.


Musical setting of the story from the Gospels of the death and resurrection of Jesus.


Genre of the Baroque. Like an opera but it was sacred and unstaged. WIth no staging came a larger role for the chorus to tell the plot.


Writes words that are used in opera. Basically writes a play to be set to music.


This new instrument is from the Classical era and allowed you to play both soft and loud dynamics on the same instrument. (improvement from harpsichord)

Trouser Role

Roles of men that are designed to be played by women. (a woman plays a young boy's character)

Program Music

Instrumental Music that is designed to tell a story


Time of scientific objectivity, social justice. An emphasis on human needs/reason and clarity. Musical Manifestations: Music became much more clear/singable/accessible. The rise of the public concert (less aristocratic based). Music appealed to the broad public.


A monody in opera (a solo voice on top of basso continuo). It makes opera possible because it is more lifelike, can provide plain information (the plot), and allows for expressive dissonances. Speechlike.

Recitative Simple v. Recitative Accompagnato

Simple: Sing in a speech like way over a solo basso continuo.Accompagnato: Sing in a speech like way over an entire orchestra (for special effect)

Recitative v. Aria

Recitative: speech like, for the plotAria: rhythmic, about feelings, can tap your feet to it

Ritornello Form

A musical snipet comes back again and again and again. Snipet - Contrast - Snipet - Contrast - etc.


Contrast between a soloist/group of soloists and a large ensemble. Common in Baroque era.

Trio Sonata

Chamber work for instruments.2 violins that are the primary instruments and a basso continuo (low base line + keyboard instrument to fill in the harmonies)4 people are playing

Sonata Form

A common musical form from the 18th century. Exposition/Introduction --> Development --> Recapitulation/ConclusionDevelopment - take themes from the intro and conclusion and play around with them


Improvisatory/Free sounding music


strict, learned, carefully planned out polyphonic composition that uses a theme that occurs in all of the voices

The Baroque Sound vs. Classical Sound

Baroque: mishapen pearl - a tacky decadence, complexity, ornamentation, rich-decadent music. Interest in emotion, experimentation, excitement. Established patterns and forms.Classical: Enlightenment --> music becomes more clear/accessible/understandable (much less complex). Balance and proportion.


Any piece that has words (vocals)


Any piece of music. A song is a special kind of piece.

Lorenzo da Ponte

The Librettist of W.A. Mozart (his favorite).Wrote the words to be used in an opera (the play part of it to be set to music by Mozart)

J.S. Bach

Baroque MusicianVery hardworking - self borrower to save timeWrote music for church environments. St. Matthews PassionPrelude and Fugue in E. Minor


Enjoyed fame/travel. Was cosmopolitan and ended up in London. Liked to write Italian Operas. Wrote simple, tuneful, attractive music. The MessiahRinaldo

W. A. Mozart

Classical MusicianStarted working as a freelance artistOperasDa Ponte LibrettistMusic was a combination of profound but accessible.

Prelude and Fugue in E Minor

J.S. Bach - from Baroque era.Was intended for the church organ but it was not sacred. Prelude: improvisatoryFugue: strict, learned, carefully worked out

St. Matthew Passion

J.S. Bach -Baroque EraPassion: musical setting of the story from the Gospels of the death/resurrection of Jesus. 2 Distinct musical characters (Jesus - recitative accompagnito - for a special effect) (Evangelist/Narrator - recitative simple)A fusion of expressiveness and seriousness

Corelli - La Folia

From the Baroque era. Repeating basso continuoA violin soloist plays the melody and plays variations over and over again. Able to show technical capabilities of the violin.

Handel, Messiah

Baroque Era. Is a Christmas song. Oratorio: opera like but sacred and not stagedRecitative vs. Aria

Handel, Rinaldo

Was an opera from the Baroque era. Shows the different functions of recitative simple and accompagnito.Demonstrates that men sang in very high voices during the Baroque era -- Castrati

W. A. Mozart, Marriage of Figaro

It was based on a play written by Beaumarchais that was about social hierarchies (and social tension). Cherubino - Trouser RoleEnsemble Finale - All characters come onto the stage, a lot of action is going on

Vivaldi, La Primavera from the Four Seasons

Was a concerto from the Baroque era. Movements included a smaller part that was self contained but a part of the larger piece. Used Ritornello form (snipet, contrast, snipet, contrast, etc.)

Instrumental Music During the Baroque Period

Instrumental music and opera-like music became very famous during the Baroque. Concertos, Sonatas, Dance SuitesBecame popular because there were more instrument makers so the instruments technical capabilities increased. A lot of people started becoming famous as instrumental players (some composers became known as instrumental composers to)More Virtuosic music.

Point of Watching Farinelli in Class

Showed the elaborate works of the Baroque era and the vocal productions they put on. It was a story about a castrato and how women loved him. He was very famous and caused women to faint/cry in the audience.


Shows a striking difference with Beethoven's music. Treated like a servant (worked for Esterhazy). Did a lot of musical jokes! String Quartet, Farewell Symphony, Farewell Symphony.Lively and genial music.


Grew up when Haydn, Mozart were composing (huge musical changes occurring). Made everything bigger, dramatic/heroic story, taps into human values (our consciousness). Was very inventive (made all the standardized forms his own).

Beethoven 5th Sympony

Unity - a part shows up in every pieceWeird opening, weird theme and variation, used a scherzo and trio instead of a minuet and trio. Put in a seque between 3rd and 4th movement so there is no pause. Added instruments to the orchestra

Beethoven 6th Symphony

Program Music - made the instrumentation tell a story- rapid shifts in dynamics

Beethoven's 9th Symphony

Use of words/singers in symphonies. Takes Schiller's text but adds text of his own.

Scott Burnham introduction

Beethoven's heroic style encodes for real life experiences. There is a human element/experience in his music. It was the embodiment of music - how music ought to be.

W.A. Mozart - Piano Concerto no. 21 movement 2

Shows the contrast between the large ensemble and soloist (concerto).