APEuro age of revolution

proletariat

urban working class

ancien regime

old government; term for the government in france before the revolution

sans-culottes

a nickname meaning "without fancy pants"term for urban working class

taille/gabelle

head taxsalt tax

4th estate

term from american politics; it refers to the media

depot

a warehouse

garrison

soldiers who man a particular position

refactory clergy

french priests who refused to swear loyalty to the state

liberty, equality and fraternity

motto of french revolution

eged

to encourage bad behavior

emigres

term for those who had fled revolutionary france

emigrant

coming out

immigrant

coming in

jacobin

the dominant radical revolutionary club in the national convention

mountain

the most radical revolutionary faction of the jacobins, led by robespierre

girondin

aka the plainthe more moderate faction of the jacobin

fervor

intense feeling, passion

abroad

outside the country

artillery

cannons

annul

to cancel after the fact; to make illegitimate

coup d'etat

acceptable coup"a military overthrow of the government

merit

that which you have earned or deserved

universal manhood suffrage

all adult males can vote

suffrage

the right to vote

franchise

the right to vote

enfranchise

to give the right to vote

concordat

an agreement or treaty

plebiscite

a vote either yes or no

embargo

to end all trade with another nation

guerilla war

little war; a war fought with unorthodox, unconventional tactics

scorched earth

russian military technique of burning everything so the enemy cannot use it

restoration

the idea of putting back in place the old governments or systems

legitimacy

the principle of putting in power the rightful ruler of parliament

puppet states

a nation who's government is actually controlled by somebody else

cahier de coleances

petitions of what the people wanted in the new government

battle of trafalgar

1805 off the coast of spain and egypt-lord nelsonended napoleon's hopes of invading britain

lord nelson

battle of trafalgar

battle of waterloo

1815france led by duke wellington-france wonfinal defeat of napoleonafterwards he was exiled to st. helena

battle of austerlitz

1805 austria and russia vs. francefrance won

battle of the nations(battle of leipzig)

1813saxony confederation of the rhine

necker

1777first finance minister was dismissed when he proposed taxation of the nobility

calonne

second finance ministerproposed taxation of all land-owners including the king

brienne

third finance ministeragreed with calonne on taxationpersuaded louis to arrest the leading nobles

tennis court oath

the new national assembly swore an oath to keep meeting until they had written a constitution*declaration of the rights of man

bastille

july 14, 1789citizens of paris stormed this infamous prison looking for weapons to defend their city against the army

declaration of the rights of man

first constitution of francepromised the basic rights of -free speech-religious toleration-liberty-equality before the law

october daysthe women's march

1789a mob of angry women marched to versailles, killed guards and forced the royal family to live back at versailles

reflections on the revolution in france

edmund burkea condemnation of what was happening in france-no single generation had the right to destroy the work of all the generations that came before it

committee of public safety

robespierre, danton, maratselected by the national convention to run as a virtual dictatorship-lead the terror

napoleon bonaparte

a virtual military dictator who sought to keep the good aspects of the revolution but with greater order and stability-head of consulate government"in any corporal's hand...

code napoleon

equality before the law-policy of justice where you were guilty until proven innocent

continental system

a failed french attempt at economic warfare with britain-all of napoleon's states resisted trade with britain

berlin decrees

decrees that stated napoleon's states could not trade with britain

invasion of russia

napoleon's grand armee of 600,000 men advancedrussian forces used scorched earth and retreatednapoleon was forced to turn back during the winter

what is the third estate

abbey sieyesthe third estate is everything.revolutionary pamphlet

estates generalnational assembly

3rd estate demanded "one man, one vote"when the estates general took a long time to decide, the third estate proclaimed itself a new parliament

great fear

panic and chaos across the country caused by fear of aristocratic restoration of powers-peasants attacked noble estates

civil constitution of the clergy

passed by the national assembly to force the clergy to swear loyalty to the state over the church= refactory clergy

declaration of pillnitz

out of opposition to the situation in france, austria and prussia pledged to attack in their own time to put the king back on the thrown and crush the revolution

consulate

1st government of napoleon-napoleon was part of a group that ran the country but in reality was a military dictator

treaty of tilsit

treaty with russia (alexander I)after battle of friedland in 1807 that kept alexander on the throne

peninsula war

fransisco goyawhen napoleon tried to go through spain to attack portugal they resisted, aided by the british

concordat with the church

napoleon received the church's blessing as emperorin return her recognized the majority of the french were catholic

declaration of the rights of women

olympia de gougesfirst work to argue for the rights of womensame responsibilities= same rights

louis XVIII

weak but well intentional monarch-married to marie antoinettehired a series of finance ministerseventually influenced by the 2nd and 3rd estatesguillotined

congress of vienna

final peace settlement after napoleon's defeat-quadruple alliance(holy alliance)

1789

seminal year;year of revolution

first estate

clergy and catholic church, 10% land, no taxes

second estate

french aristocrats; 30% land no taxes

third estate

the masses of france; 50% land, all taxes

order of the governments in revolutionary france

estates generalnational assemblylegislative assemblyfirst republic-national convention 1792-committee of public safety 1792-1794-directory 1794-1799-consulate 1799-1804

napoleonic art

coronation of napoleon by davidthe third of may by goya

peninsula war

1807-1814napoleon tried to go through spain in order to attack portugalspain resisted with the help of britainvicious guerilla war

elba

island napoleon was exiled to

hundred days

1815when napoleon escaped elba, france quickly rallied around himlouis XVIII had to flee