chapter 19

also known as hypophysis; located underside of brain at the sella turcica. connected to hypothalamus. complex gland that secretes hormones that affect body function; master gland.

pituitary gland

consisting of right and left lobe, connected by by narrow piece of cartilage that produces the prominence on the neck known as the adams apple. produces: thyroxin-maintain metabolism; triiodthyronine-helps regulate growth and development and control metabolism and body temperature; calcintonin- regulates level of calcium in blood.

thyroid

four small glands are four small nodules of tissue embedded in the back side of the thyroid glands. secrete parathormone which increases blood calcium levels

parathyroid

aka suprarenal glands. the two glands sit on top of each kidney. consists of central region (adrenal medulla) and outer region (adrenal cortex). adrenal cortex is the largest part of gland, secretes 3 types of steroid hormones called corticosteroids: glucocorticoids-affect gluscose and metabolism and maintain blood glucose levels; mineralcorticoids- electrolyte balance (most important is aldosterone-controls sodium and potassium ion concetration in kidney); gonadocorticoids- sex hormones released from adrenal cortex, contribute to secondary sex characteristics (breast and beard development), necessary for reproduction. adrenal medulla secretes two nonsteroid hormones- catecholamines- adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinepherine) are stress hormones that exert physiological changes during times of stress

adrenal

elongated structure located behind stomach in left upper quadrant . the specialized cells that produce hormones are called the islets of Langerhans, which produces insulin and glucagon. Insulin (produced by beta cells) is necessary for glucose to pass from the blood into the cells and be used for energy. also promotes the conversion of glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver. Glucagon (produced by alpha cells) increase blood levels of glucose by stimulating the breakdown of glucogen stored in liver cells. it is the major carbohydrate in the body.

pancreas

two small glands in upper pelvic cavity, on either side of uterine wall near fallopian tubes. almond shaped and held in place by ligaments. female sex glands, aka female gonads. produce mature ova as well as two hormones responsible for female sex characteristics and regulation in menstrual cycle--estrogen and progesterone. estrogen promotes maturation of ova in ovary and prepares the uterine lining for implantation of fertilized egg; also responsible for development and maintenance of secondary female characteristics. progesterone is responsible for preparation and maintenance of the uterus in pregnancy and for development of the placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum.

ovaries

male gonads are two small ovoid glands suspended from the inguinal region of the male by the spermatic cord and surrounded by the scrotal sac. primary organ of male reproduction. secrete androgens, male steroid hormone, and testosterone, male hormone necessary for secondary sex characteristics.

testes

cone shaped structure attached by a stalk to the posterior wall of the cerebrum. exact function unclear but it is thought to function as a light receptor and to play a part in regulation of the "biological clock." it secretes melatonin, the hormone believed to induce sleep

pineal

single gland located behind the sternum in the mediastinum. resembles a lymph gland (part of lymphatic system), but its also is a hormone secreting endocrine gland. it is large in children but it shrinks with age until there is only a trace of active tissue in older adults. it secretes thymosin and thymopoitin, which stimulate the production of T cells, the specialized lymphocytes involved in the immune response.

thymus

abnormal enlargement of the extremities of the skeleton, nose, jaws , fingers and toes; caused by hypersecretion of the pitiutary growth hormone after maturity

acromegaly

bronzelike pigmentation of the skin, severe prostration, progressive anemia, low blood pressure, diarrhea, and digestive disturbance, caused adrenal hypofunction

Addison's disease

surgical excision of the adrenal gland

adrenalectomy

group of symptoms associated with alterations in sex characteristics due to abnormally increased production of androgens

adrenogenital syndrome

enlargement of adrenal gland

adrenomegaly

arrested physical and mental development owing to congenital lack of thyroid secretion

cretinism

obesity, weakness, moon face, edema and high blood pressure; caused by hyperfunction of the adrenals

cushings disease

a condition caused by insufficient excretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (vasopressin) by the posterior pituitary gland. it causes the kidney tubules to fail to reabsorb needed water and salts. symptoms include polyuria(increased urination) and polydipsia (increased thirst).

diabetes insipidus

inability to metabolize sugar because of abnormal insulin function; high blood sugar, excessive urination, thirst, hunger, emaciation, and weakness are cardinal symptoms of the most severe types (type 1)

diabetes mellitus

toxic goiter; Grave's disease; protrusion of the eyeballs, swollen neck, weight loss, shaking, and mental deterioration are symptoms

exophthalmic goiter

a condition in which pregnant women sometimes show abnormal glucose levels during the course of pregnancy (hyperglycemia)

gestational diabetes

enlargement of the thyroid gland; swelling in the front part of the neck, mostly caused by dietary deficiency of iodine

goiter (simple)

a progressive disease of the thyroid gland with degeneration of its epithelium and replacement by the lymphoid and fibrous tissue

Hasimoto's disease

blood sugar (glucose) level above normal

hyperglycemia

underactivity of the thyroid gland. shortage of thyroid hormones causes a low body metabolism because of the body's reduced use of oxygen. any one of several conditions can produce hypothyroidism. such as endemic goiter, thyroidectomy, faulty hormone synthesis, and congenital thyroid defects, a condition that is called cretinism, and which results in a child lacking normal mental and physical growth

hypothyroidism

a dry, waxy type of welling with deposits of mucin in the skin, swollen lips, and thickened nose. it is the advanced form of hypothyroidism in adults

myxedema

rupture of an ovary

ovariorrhexis

anastomosis of the pancreatic duct to the stomach

pancreaticogastrostomy

inflammation of the pancreas due to autodigestion of pancreatic tissue by its own enzymes

pancreatitis

pheochromo" means dusky color; tumor of the medulla characterized by hypertension, weight loss and personality changes

pheochromocytoma

generalized hypoituitarism owing to absence or damage of the pituitary gland; exhaustion, emaciation and cachexia are symptoms

simmond's disease (panhypopituitarism)

sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints, muscle twitching, cramps, and convulsion; caused by abnormal calcium metabolism

tetany

surgical excision of the thyroid gland

thyroidectomy

treatment with thyroid preparations

thyrotherapy

surgical division of thyroid cartilage

thyrotomy

a pathologic condition caused by accumulation of acid in, or loss of base from, the body

acidosis

lack or loss of appetite for food

anorexia

malnutrition, wasting and emaciation

cachexia

clouding of the eye lens

cataract

involuntary muscular contractions

convulsions

profuse perspiration

diaphoresis

excessive leanness; a wasted condition

emaciation

ductless gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream

endocrine

a ducted gland that secretes directly into carious organs

exocrine

death of tissue from lack of circulation and consequent loss of nutrients

gangrene

an organ that secretes a metabolic substance. may be endocrine or exocrine

gland

blood sugar (glucose) level is below normal

hypoglycemia

drug for the diabetic to decrease the amount of glucose in the blood

hypoglycemic agent

excision of the pituitary gland (hypophysis)

hypophysectomy

a protein hormone produced by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. secreted into blood in response to a rise in the concentration of blood glucose. it promotes the entrance of glucose from the blood into the cells. a diabetic patient is deficient in insulin or insulin receptors leading to a rise in blood glucose

insulin

accumulation of excessive amount of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids; a complication in some diabetic patients

ketosis

accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood that results in metabolic acidosis (ketosis and ketoacidosis are often used interchangeably)

ketoacidosis

any functional disturbances and/or pathologic changes in the peripheral nervous system; a complication in some diabetic patients

neuropathy