MA-170 Ch 13

gonads

organ that produces ova or sperm

gamete

a reproductive cell (ovum or spermatozoon) both live for only a few days

ovulation

release of an ovum from the ovary

conception

or fertilization; union of the sperm cell nucleus with and egg cell nucleus, usually occurs in uterine tube?�fertilized ovum undergoes a series of cell divisions as it moves along the uterine tube and then enters the uterine cavity

implantation

about the seventh day after ovulation, the fertilized ovum attaches to the endometrium

zygote

product of fertilization which undergoes rapid cell divisions; known by different names at various stages

embryo

�beginning of the third week�all the organ systems form during the embryonic stage�when the extraembryonic membrane forms

extraembryonic membranes

�the aminon�the chorion�membranes that provide protection by surrounding the embryo with amniotic fluid

fetus

�begins after the 8th week

ooblast

immature ovum

spermatoblast

immature form of sperm

chorionic

pert. to the chorion

aminochorionic

pert. to both the aminon and the chorion�also = aminochorial

placenta

�formed in embryonic stage�highly vascular structure that nourishes the fetus�secretes large amounts of progesterone

afterbirth

�placenta�aminon�chorion

pregnancy

process of broth and development of new individual from conception through the embryonic and fetal periods to birth�gestation�prenatal period

parturition

childbirth

obstetrician

specializes in obstetrics: the medical specialty that is concerned with [pregnancy and childbirth, and includes the time immediately after childbirth

par/o

bearing offspring

-blast

immature or embryonic

pseudo-True False

false

-cyesis

pregnancy

-gravida

pregnant female

-para

woman who has given birth

-tropin

that which stimulates

quickening

the first recognizable movements of the fetus in the uterus�at about 18-20 weeks in a first pregnancy and slightly sooner in later pregnancies

expected delivery date

usually calculated from the first day of the LMP (280)�266 days from date of fertilization

gravid

pregnant�gravida I = pregnant for first time; primigravida

viable offspring

one that has reached a stage of development that it can live outside the uterus and usually means a fetus that weighs at least 500 grams (just over 1 pound) and has reached a gestational age of 24 weeks�para III = three pregnancies�primipara�secundipara�tripara�quadripara�nullipara = zero offspring

parous

refers to producing viable offspring

aminorrhexis

rupture of the amnion�occurs before the child is born�sometimes the mother's first sign of impending labor�when the "water breaks

labor

process by which the child is expelled from the uterus�time from the beginning of cervical dilation to delivery of the placenta�four stages (1)cervical dilation; begins with onset of regular uterine contractions, ends when cervical opening is fully dilated (2) expulsion; extends until complete expulsion of the infant (3) placental; extends until the placenta is expelled (4) postpartum; not everyone recognizes as a stage of labor, hour or two after delivery when uterine tone is established

effacement

shortening and thinning of the cervix during labor�causes the mucous plug that fills the cervical canal to dislodge

cesarean section

surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and the baby is removed from the uterus�performed when abnormal fetal or maternal conditions make vaginal delivery hazardous

neonate

newborn child

neonatal

refers to the period covering the first 28 days after birth�or pert. to the newborn child

neonatologist

physician who specializes in the care of the newborn

human chorionic gonadotropin

present in body fluids (blood, urine) of pregnant females

pelvimetry

vaginal palpation of specific bony landmarks and is used to estimate the size of the birth canal

cephalopelvic disproportion

condition in which a baby's head is too large or the mother's birth canal is too small to permit normal labor

fetal sonography

noninvasive procedure that is used to assess structural abnormalities and monitor the development of the fetus�radiology presents risk of radiation to the fetus

amniocentesis

surgical procedure in which a needle is passed through th abdominal and uterine walls to obtain a small amount of amniotic fluid for laboratory analysis

chorionic villi

tiny finger-like projections of the chorion that infiltrate the endometrium and help form the placenta

chorionic villus sampling

sampling of these villi (placental tissue) for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects and is usually performed between eighth and twelfth weeks of pregnancy

fetoscope

stethoscope for assessing the fetal heart rate (FHR) through mother's abdomen, also gives info about uterine contractions

pseudocyesis

false pregnancy; pseudopregnancy

preeclamppsia

complication of pregnancy, characterized by the onset of acute high blood pressure after the 24th week of gestation�may progress to eclampsia

proteinuria

protein in the urine

eclampsia

gravest form of pregnancy-induced high blood pressure, characterized by seizures, coma, high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema, leads to convulsions and death if untreated

abruptio placentae

this condition is a separation of the placenta from the uterine wall after 20 weeks or more during labor and it often results in severe hemorrhage�fetal death results if there is complete separation of the placenta from the uterine wall so cesarean sections are performed in severe cases

placenta previa

condition in which the placenta is implanted abnormally in the uterus so that it impinges on or covers the internal os�one of the most common reasons for painless bleeding in the last trimester

internal os

opening at the upper end of the uterine cervix

stillbirth

fetus that is born dead

dystocia

abnormal or difficult birth�may be caused by an obstruction or constriction of the birth passageway or by an abnormal shape, size, position, or condition of the fetus

Down syndrome

�extra chromosome, usually number 21�most often associated with late maternal age�trisomy 21

hemolytic disease of the newborn

destruction of RBCs�also called erythroblastosis fetalis

amnotomy

deliberate rupture of the fetal membranes to induce labor

ocytocin

�Pitocin = trade name�hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates uterine contraction

episiotomy

incision that enlarges the vaginal opening to facilitate delivery

coitus interruptus

withdrawal of the penis before ejaculation

in vitro fertilization

may be successful when failure to conceive is caused by insufficient numbers of sperm�method of fertilizing an ova outside the body by collecting mature ova and placing them in a dish with spermatozoa�fertilized ova are then placed in the uterus for implatation

gonorrhea

causes heavy urethral discharge in males, females may be asymptomatic�may be treated with penicilin

syphilis

occurred through Europe after 1493�first stage is characterized by swollen lymph nodes and the appearance of a painless sore called a chancre�second stage (2-6 weeks) organisms spread throughout body and a generalized rash appears �third stage has irreversible complications, changes in cardiovascular and nervous systems

condyloma acuminatum

genital warts�only STD for which a vaccine is available

BBT

basal body temperature

CPD

cephalopelvic disproportion

CS

cesarean section

DFA

direct fluorescent antibody

EDD

expected delivery date

EFM

electronic fetal monitor

EIA

enzyme emmunoassay

FHR

fetal heart rate

G

gravida

GC

gonococcus

HBV

hepatitis B virus

HGC

human chorionic gonadotropin

HPV

human papillomavirus

HSV-2

herpes simplex virus type 2 (genital herpes)

IFA

immunofluorescent assay

IUD

intrauterine device

IVF

in vitro fertilization

LMP

last menstrual period

OB

obstetrics

RPR

rapid plasma reagin

VDRL

Venereal Disease Research Laboratories