Principles Chapter 20

Define collective behavior and describe the conditions necessary for such behavior to occur.

Collective Behavior is voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values.Brings about social change/alterationFactors that contribute to collective behavior: (1) structural factors that increase the chances of people responding in a particular way, (2) timing, and (3) a breakdown in social control mechanisms and a corresponding feeling of normlessness.

Distinguish between crowds and masses. Identify casual, conventional, expressive, acting, and protest crowds.

Crowd is a relatively large number of people who are in one another?s immediate vicinity.Casual Crowd is a relatively large gatherings of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time; if they interact at all, it is only briefly.Conventional Crowd is made up of people who come together for a scheduled event and thus share a common focus.Expressive Crowd provide opportunities for the expression of some strong emotion.Acting Crowd collectivities so intensely focused on a specific purpose or object that they may erupt into violent or destructive behavior.Protest CrowdsMass is a number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in one another?s immediate vicinity.

Identify the stages in social movements.

1) Preliminary (volunteers), widespread unrest is present as people being to become aware of a problem2) Coalescence (volunteers), people begin to organize and to publicize the problem3) Institutionalization, an organizational structure develops, and a paid staff beings to lead the group

Define mass behavior and describe the most frequent types of this behavior.

Mass is a number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in one another?s immediate vicinity.Rumor is an unsubstantiated report on an issue or subjectGossip is rumors about the personal lives of individuals.Mass Hysteria and Panic: Mass hysteria is a form of dispersed collective behavior that occurs when a large number of people react with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior to a real or perceived threat.Fads and Fashions: A fad is a temporary but widely copied activity enthusiastically followed by large numbers of people; Fashion is defined as a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance.Public Opinion is the attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers.Propaganda is information provided by individuals or groups that have a vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one.

Describe the difference between rumors and gossip and between fads and fashions.

Rumor is an unsubstantiated report on an issue or subjectGossip is rumors about the personal lives of individuals.Fads and Fashions: A fad is a temporary but widely copied activity enthusiastically followed by large numbers of people; Fashion is defined as a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance.

State the key assumptions of resource mobilization theory.

A variety of resources (money, members, access to media, and material goods such as equipment) are necessary for a social movement; people participate only when they feel the movement has access to these resources.Resource mobilization theory asserts that successful social movements can occur only when they gain the support of political and economic elites, who provide access to the resources necessary to maintain the movement.

State the key assumptions of the frame analysis approach to understanding social movements.

Based on the assumptions that social movements are an interactive, symbolically defined, and negotiated process involving participants, opponents, and bystanders, frame analysis is used to determine how people assign meaning to activities and processes in social movements.Research based on frame analysis often highlights the social construction of grievances through the process of social interaction. Various types of framing occur as problems are identified, remedies are sought, and people feel compelled to take action.

Describe new social movement theory and the diverse array of social movements on which it focuses.

The focus is on sources of social movements, including politics, ideology, and culture. Race, class, gender, sexuality, and other sources of identity are also factors in movements such as ecofeminism and environmental justice.New social movement theory has been used in research that looks at technological disasters and causes of the environmental racism.

Distinguish among mobs, riots, and panics.

Mob is a highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target - a person, a category of people, or physical property.Riot is a violent crowd behavior that is fueled by deep-seated emotions but is not directed at one specific target.Panic is a form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior.

Distinguish the key elements of these four explanations of collective behavior: contagion theory, social unrest and circular reaction, convergence theory, and emergent norm theory.

Contagion Theory focuses on the social-psychological aspects of collective behavior; it attempts to explain how moods, attitudes, and behavior are communicated rapidly and why they are accepted by others.Social Unrest and Circular Reaction: social unrest is transmitted by a process of circular reaction - the interactive communication between persons such that the discontent of one person is communicated to another, who, in turn, reflects the discontent back to the first person.Convergence Theory focuses on the shared emotions, goals, and beliefs that many people may bring to crowd behavior.Emergent Norm Theory emphasizes the importance of social norms in shaping crowd behavior.

Compare relative deprivation theory and value added theory as explanations of why people join social movements.

Relative deprivation theory asserts that if people are discontented when they compare their accomplishments with those of others similarly situated, they are more likely to join a social movement than are people who are relatively content with their status.People are discontent when they compare their achievements with those of others consider themselves relatively deprived and join social movements in order to get what they view as their "fair share," especially when there is an upswing in the economy followed by a decline.According to value-added theory, six conditions are required for a social movement: (1)structural conduciveness: a perceived problem, (2) structural strain: a perception that the authorities are not resolving the problem, (3) a spread of the belief to an adequate number of people, (4) a precipitating incident or events that reinforce the belief, (5) mobilization of other people by leaders, and (6) social control factors: a lack of social control.

Differentiate among the five major types of social movements based on their goals and the amount of change they seek to produce.

A social movement is an organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action. Reform, revolutionary, religious, and alternative movements are major types identified by sociologists. Reform movements seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure. Revolutionary movements seek to bring about a total change in society - sometimes by the use of terrorism. Religious movements seek to produce radical change in individuals by way of spiritual or supernatural belief systems. Alternative movements seek limited change to some aspect of people?s behavior. Resistance movements seek to prevent change or to undo change that has already occurred.

Social Change

The alteration, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time.

Collective Behavior

Voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values.

Crowd

A relatively large number of people who are in one another's immediate vicinity.

Casual Crowd

A relatively large gatherings of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time; if they interact at all, it is only briefly.

Conventional Crowd

Made up of people who come together for a scheduled event and thus share a common focus.

Expressive Crowd

Provide opportunities for the expression of some strong emotion.

Acting Crowd

Collectivities so intensely focused on a specific purpose or object that they may erupt into violent or destructive behavior.

Mass

A number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in one another?s immediate vicinity.

Mob

A highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target ? a person, a category of people, or physical property.

Riot

Violent crowd behavior that is fueled by deep-seated emotions but is not directed at one specific target.

Panic

A form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior.

Protest Crowds

Engage in activities intended to achieve specific political goals.

Civil Disobedience

Nonviolent action that seeks to change a policy or law by refusing to comply with it.

Contagion Theory

Focuses on the social-psychological aspects of collective behavior; it attempts to explain how moods, attitudes, and behavior are communicated rapidly and why they are accepted by others.

Social Unrest and Circular Reaction

Social unrest is transmitted by a process of circular reaction - the interactive communication between persons such that the discontent of one person is communicated to another, who, in turn, reflects the discontent back to the first person.

Convergence Theory

Focuses on the shared emotions, goals, and beliefs that many people may bring to crowd behavior.

Emergent Norm Theory

Emphasizes the importance of social norms in shaping crowd behavior.

Mass Behavior

Collective behavior that takes place when people (who often are geographically separated from one another) respond to the same event in much the same way.

Rumor

An unsubstantiated report on an issue or subject

Gossip

Rumors about the personal lives of individuals.

Mass Hysteria and Panic

Mass hysteria is a form of dispersed collective behavior that occurs when a large number of people react with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior to a real or perceived threat.

Fads and Fashions

A fad is a temporary but widely copied activity enthusiastically followed by large numbers of people.Fashion is defined as a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance.

Public Opinion

The attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers.

Propaganda

Information provided by individuals or groups that have a vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one.

Social Movement

An organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action.

Reform Movement

Seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure.

Revolutionary Movements

Movements seeking to bring about a total change in society.

Religious Movements

Social movements that seek to produce radical change in individuals are typically based on spiritual or supernatural belief systems.

Alternative Movements

Movements that seek limited change in some aspect of people's behavior.

Resistance Movements

Seek to prevent change or to undo change that has already occurred.

Environmental Racism

The belief that a disproportionate number of hazardous facilities (including industries such as waste disposal/treatment and chemical plants) are placed in low-income areas populated primarily by people of color.