Principles Chapter 18

Define social epidemiology and its role in society.

Social Epidemiology is the study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population.The field of social epidemiology attempts to answer questions such as these.

Define health, health care and medicine and explain the importance of these issues for individuals and the whole of society.

Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.Health Care is any activity intended to improve health.Medicine is an institutional system for the scientific diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness.

Describe the key events and ideas associated with the rise of scientific medicine and professionalism.

The Flexner Report - a model of how medical education should take place - school should be full-time, research-oriented, laboratory facility that devoted all of its energies to teaching and research, not to the practice of medicine.Scientific discoveries - anesthesiology and bacteriologyThe Professionalization of Medicine - (1) abstract, specialized knowledge, (2) autonomy, (3) Self-regulation, (4) authority, and (5) altruism.

Summarize three major social implications of advanced medical technology.

1) The new technologies create options for people and for society, but options that alter human relationships.2) The new technologies increase the cost of medical care.3) The new technologies raise provocative questions about the very nature of life.

Classify four methods of paying for health care and controlling health care costs in the U.S.

1) Private Health Insurance (most don't have today - too expensive) Public health insurance (Medicaid/medicare)2) HMO Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) are companies that provide, for a set monthly fee, total care with an emphasis on prevention to avoid costly treatment later.3) Managed Care is any system of cost containment that closely monitors and controls health care providers: decisions about medical procedures, diagnostic tests, and other services that should be provided to patients.4) Underinsured/uninsured

Explain how lifestyle choices affect health, disease, and impairment.

1) Drug use - therapeutic, recreational, and abuse (alcohol, nicotine, and illegal drugs)2) Sexual activity - leads to STDs3) diet and exercise

Compare and contrast holistic medicine and alternative medicine with traditional, or orthodox medical treatment.

Holistic Medicine is an approach to health care that focuses on prevention of illness and disease and is aimed at treating the whole person - body and mind - rather than just the part or parts in which symptoms occur.Alternative Medicine is the healing practices inconsistent with dominant medical practice.

Distinguish between health care in the U.S. to that of other countries.

Canada - taxes and insurance premiums (government don't own hospitals - private own - doctors independent contractors not gov officials)Britain - gov owned hospitals and doctors

Health

A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.

Health Care

Any activity intended to improve health.

Medicine

An institutional system for the scientific diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness.

Life Expectancy

An estimate of the average lifetime of people born in a specific year.

Infant Mortality Rate

The number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.

Social Epidemiology

The study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population.

Chronic Diseases

Illnesses that are long term or life-long and that develop gradually or are present from birth.

Acute Diseases

Illnesses that strike suddenly and cause dramatic incapacitation and sometimes death.

Drug

Any substance - other than food and water - that, when taken in to the body, alters its functioning in some way.

Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)

Companies that provide, for a set monthly fee, total care with an emphasis on prevention to avoid costly treatment later.

Managed Care

Any system of cost containment that closely monitors and controls health care providers? decisions about medical procedures, diagnostic tests, and other services that should be provided to patients.

Universal Health Care

A health care system in which all citizens receive medical services paid for by tax revenues.

Socialized Medicine

A health care system in which the government owns the medical care facilities and employs the physicians.

Holistic Medicine

An approach to health care that focuses on prevention of illness and disease and is aimed at treating the whole person - body and mind - rather than just the part or parts in which symptoms occur.

Sick role

The set of patterned expectations that defines the norms and values appropriate for individuals who are sick and for those who interact with them.

Medical-Industrial Complex

Local physicians, local hospitals, and global health-related industries such as insurance companies and pharmaceutical and medical supply companies that deliver health care today.

Medicalization

The process whereby nonmedical problems become defined and treated as illnesses or disorders.

Demedicalization

The process whereby a problem ceases to be defined as an illness or a disorder.

Deinstitutionalization

The practice of rapidly discharging patients from mental hospitals into the community.

Disability

A reduced ability to perform tasks one would normally do at a given stage of life and that may result in stigmatization or discrimination against the person with disabilities.