Principles Chapter 16

Describe the type of education found in preliterate societies.

Preliterate societies existed before the invention of reading and writing, had no written language, daily activity centered around the struggle to survive against natural forces, and the earliest forms of education are survival oriented.Acquire knowledge and skill through informal education (learning that occurs in a spontaneous, unplanned way).

List and discuss some of the major problems in U. S. elementary and secondary education.

School discipline and teaching styles, bullying (teasing) and sexually harassment, and school violence. Also dropping out - latinos

Trace the history of education in preindustrial and industrial societies to the present.

Although preindustrial societies have a written language, few people know how to read and write, and formal education is often reserved for the privileged.During the Middle Ages, the first colleges and universities were developed under the auspices of the Catholic church.The Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution had a profound effect on education. During the Renaissance, the focus of education shifted to the importance of developing well-rounded and liberally educated people. With the rapid growth of industrial capitalism and factories during the Industrial Revolution, it became necessary for workers to have basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Agriculture was the economic base of society, and literacy for people in the lower classes was not deemed important.In the United States, the free public school movement was started in 1848 by Horace Mann, who stated that education should be the "great equalizer.

Describe the functionalist perspective on education.

Education is one of the most important components of society: Schools teach students not only content but also to put group needs ahead of the individual?s.Dysfunctions: (2)

Discuss the postmodernist perspective on education, and discuss the significance of the "students as consumers" model.

In contemporary schools, educators attempt to become substitute parents and promulgators of self-esteem in students; students and their parents become the consumers of education.

Compare and contrast contemporary education in other nations using Japan and Bosnia as the models.

Japan didn?t make public education mandatory for children until the country underwent industrialization. During the Meiji period Japanese officials created an educational system and national educational goals in hopes of catching up to the West. Education was viewed as a form of economic and national development and as a means of identifying talent for a new technological elite.Today, Japanese educators, parents, students, and employers all view education as a crucial link in Japan?s economic success. Japanese schools not only emphasize conformity and nationalism, but also highlight the importance of obligation to one's family and learning of skills necessary for employment. Beginning at about three years of age, many Japanese toddlers are sent to cram schools (jukus) to help them qualify for good preschools.In both cram schools and public schools, students learn discipline and thinking skills, along with physical activities such as karate and gymnastics to improve agility. By the time children reach elementary school, they are expected to engage in cooperative activities with their classmates.Girls and young women feel stifled by lack of educational opportunities in Japan.Young men face extreme pressures. Health issues related to school.

Describe the significance of the self-fulfilling prophecy and labeling on educational achievement.

Labeling is the process whereby a person is identified by others as possessing a specific characteristic or exhibiting a certain pattern of behavior (such as being deviant). Labeling is directly related to the power and status of those persons who do the labeling and those who are being labeled. In schools, teachers and administrators are empowered to label children in various ways, including grades, written comments on classroom behavior, and placement in classes.For some students labeling amounts to a self-fulfilling prophecy - previously defined as an unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.

Describe conflict perspectives on education and note how they differ from a functionalist perspective.

From a conflict perspective, education is used to perpetuate class, racial-ethnic, and gender inequalities through tracking, ability grouping, and a hidden curriculum that teaches subordinate groups conformity and obedience.Cultural capital is the social assets that include values, beliefs, attitudes, and competencies in language and culture. Cultural capital involves "proper" attitudes toward education, socially approved dress and manners, and knowledge about books, art, music, and other forms of high and popular culture.Tracking refers to the practice of assigning students to specific curriculum groups and courses on the basis of their test scores, previous grades, or other criteria. - promote social inequalityHidden curriculum is the transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in the rules, routines, and regulations of schools.Credentialism and meritocracy

Differentiate symbolic interactionist perspectives on education from other paradigms.

Symbolic interactionists examine classroom synamics and study ways in which practices such as labeling may become a self-fulfilling prophecy for some students, such that these students come to perform ? up or down ? to the expectations held for them by teachers.Also teachers behaviors towards students

Explain the manifest and latent functions fulfilled by the institution of education.

Manifest functions are open, stated, and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution.Latent functions are hidden, unstated, and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organization or institution.According to functionalists, education has both manifest functions (socialization, transmission of culture, social control, social placement, and change and innovation) and latent functions (keeping young people off the streets and out of the job market, matchmaking and producing social networks, and creating a generation gap).Describe four recent problems in U. S. higher education and assess possible solutions to these problems.High cost of a college education, the underrepresentation of minorities as students and faculty in many schools and degree programs, and the continuing debate over affirmative action (a term that describes policies or procedures that are intended to promote equal opportunity for categories of people deemed to have been previously excluded from equality in education, employment, and other fields on the basis of characteristics such as race or ethnicity).


The social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure.

Cultural Transmission

The process by which children and recent immigrants become acquainted with the dominate cultural beliefs, values, norms, and accumulated knowledge of society.

Informal Education

Learning that occurs in a spontaneous, unplanned way.

Formal Education

Learning that takes place within an academic setting such as a school, which has a planned instrumental process and teachers who convey specific knowledge, skills, and thinking processes to students.

Mass Education

The practice of providing free, public schooling for wide segments of a nation?s population.

Cultural Capital

Pierre Bourdieu?s term for people?s social assets, including values, beliefs, attitudes, and competencies in language and culture.


The assignment of students to specific curriculum groups and courses on the basis of their test scores, previous grades, or other criteria.

Hidden Curriculum

The transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in rules, routines, and regulations of schools.


A process of social selection in which class advantage and social status are linked to the possession of academic qualifications.

Functional Illiteracy

The inability to read and/or write at the skill level necessary for carrying out everyday tasks.