Mythology

Antigone

Daughter of Oedipus and Iocasta; her uncle and new ruler of Thebes, Creon, had issued an order that no one may bury traitors to Thebes. This order is also offensive to the gods. Antigone's brother Polynices had fought against the king. She challenges the order and sprinkles some dirt on her brother. She respects divine laws and laws of conscience more than state.

Sphinx

...has the body of a lion, a womans face, and wings. Hera had sent it to punish Lauis, father of Oedipus. She asks people who pass by a riddle, then kills them. Oedipus answers her riddle and she kills herself. This is important because it shows that even though Oedipus is extremely smart, one can never really "know" themselves.

Oedipus

The oracle had fortold his father that he would be killed by his own son. Lauis gets rid of kid and Oedipus becomes the adopted son of king of Corinth. An oracle tells Oedipus he will kill his father and marry his mother. Trying to prevent this he flees Corith and kills a man he later finds out to be his father. After killing the Sphinx, he is crowned the new king of Thebes and marries the Queen (his mother). He represents the limitation of human knowledge. He wants to know the truth even though it may destroy him. When the truth comes out Iocasta kills herself and he blinds and exiles himself. He left 2 sons to alternate being king and cursed them with war and to eventually kill each other.

Cadmus

the founder of Thebes

Seven against Thebes

7 gates defended by 7 lone heros. The two sons of Oedipus fought at one of the gates and killed each other. There were 2 campaigns, and due to the advice of Tirestas the city was abandoned overnight and destroyed in the 2nd

Henrich Schliemann

father of archeology, found the site of Troy, but was careless digging the trench and distroyed a lot

arete'

prowess, valor, (dad and grandpa did it)

elenchcie

shame

time'

honor, value (go through life wanting to acquire more)

geras

token of esteem, tangible, something you actually get to enjoy

kle'os

immortal glory, when you die time' turns to this

Agamemnon

brother of Menelaus and husband of Clytemnestra, commander-in-chief of the Greek expedition against Troy, he is killed by his wife when he returns

Paris

son of Priam and Hecuba, abducts Helen and causes the Trojan War, kills Achilles

Thetis

sea nymph and mother of Achilles, begs Zeus to help the Trojans on Achilles behalf

Helen

wife of Menelaus, and daughter of Zeus, Paris abducts her and starts Trojan War

Menelaus

husband of Helen and brother of Agamemnon, kills Paris

Odysseus

husband of Penelope, hero of Homer's Odyssey, after the Trojan War he becomes a "man with flaws." It takes him 10 years to get home. First the winds drive his ships into a city, he sacks it and a fierce battle ensues and he loses a lot of men. Next he runs into the lotus eaters, they are like flower children cult, he is lucky to get his men back, they have lost memory and the knowledge of what's important. Circe turns his men to pigs, he gets her to turn them back and stays with her for a year. Goes to Cyclops next, it's not enough just to eat and spend the night, he wants a gift. Cyclops eats some of his men and they have to get him drunk and blind him to escape

Iphigeneia

daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemenestra, was sacrificed to Artemis because of Agamemnon

Hecuba

wife of Priam and mother of Paris and Hector

Hector

son of Priam and Hecuba, kills Achilles friend, fights Achilles and is rescued by divine intervention, later Achilles kills him and ransoms body

Polydorus

youngest son of Priam and Hecuba, brother of Hector, killed by Achilles

Laomedon

King of Troy, father of Priam, had the wals of Troy built for him by Apollo and Poseidon, but then refused to pay. They sent a plague and he had to sacrifice his daughter Hesione to a sea monster. Hercules killed monster and saved her, and he refused to pay, Hercules returned and killed him. Troy was supposed to be safe while his grave remained undisturbed

Cassandra

daughter of Priam and Hecuba, clung to statue of Athena to try to prevent her rape,

Helenus

son of Priam, warrior and prophet, prophesied the fall of Troy

Ajax

warrior that kills himself after losing argument with Odysseus over who gets Achilles arms

Calchas

Greek seer, reveals the reason for the plague on camp, Agamemnon had taken daughter of priest (geras) and fortells the legnth of the Trojan War

Aeneas

son of Anchises and Aphrodite, cousin of Hector and second in command of the Trojan army, fights Achilles but is rescued by divine intervention, went to the Underworld to speak to his father, was given vision of the future and was founder of Lavinium, and father of the Romans. He is a NEW KIND OF HERO. The archetype of the patriotic hero, PIETAS. He picks up a Greek and allows him to stay on ship. Anchisis dies on trip. Wind drives them to Carthage and Dido falls in love with him. She kills herself when he leaves. He goes to the underworld to talk to father and get vision of the future. He is given Latvinia for a wife.

Circe

sorceress that turns a group of Odysseus's men into pigs, Odysseus rescues them and they stay with her for a year, then leave to go to the Underworld to consult Tiresias

Cyclops

One-eyed monster that captures Odysseus and eats some of his men. They escape by getting him drunk and blinding him.

Ascanius

son of Aeneas, projection of ideal Roman youth, King of Lavinium and founder of Alba Longa, the city from which Rome was founded

Picus

son of Saturn and father of Faunus, was turned into a woodpecker by Circe for refusing to marry

Latinus

father of Romulus and Lavtinia, son of Faunus

Turnus

Aeneas' rival, he had been promised Latvinia as a wife, he tries to torch the Trojan ships and a goddess changes them to nymphs

pietas

typical Roman attitude of dutiful respect towards gods, fatherland, parents and other kinsmen

Romulus

mythical founder of Rome w/Remus

Jason

hihgly unusual hero, either triumphant or tragic, his story changes dramatically, he was the true heir to Iolcus, but his uncle took over, he was given tasks to do to win the throne backMain challengesAmycusHarpiesThe Clashing Rocks "Symplegades" at the entrace to the red seaBulls, warriors, drago - 3 main challenges for JasonColchian fleet, Talus - Pursues the argonauts on the way back, Talus is a huge robot

argonauts

men that travelled with JasonAchilles father was an argonautThis is the generation befire the Trojan WarIt was a voyage of discovery, a Greek expedition not set out to attack anyone in particular

Colchis

land where Medea came from, was a real historical place

Aegeus

father of Theseus, married Medea then he runs her off when she tries to poison Theseus, kills himself when his son forgets to raise his white flag signalling his survival

Theseus

King of Athens, Medea's step son, killed the Minotaur, Athens MOST IMPORTANT HERO, he unified Attica. Opposite of Jason's story, his got better with time instead of worse.

Ariadne

daughter of Minos, she helps Theseus kill the minotaur, when he leaves her she marries Dionysus

Minos

King of Crete, 3 generations after the Trojan War, he payed to Poseidan to send him a bull so he could sacrifice it, he liked it so much he didn't sacrifice it, Posidan made his wife fall in love with it and the Minotaur was produced

Daedalus

built the labyrinth where the Menotaur was kept, built the dancing floor of Ariadne, and gives her the thread that she gives to Theseus to help him get out of the labyrinth after defeating the bull