Regulation of the cardiovascular system

What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?

Maintain homeostasis and a favourable cell environmentContinuous and controlled flow of blood through capillaries to every cell.Deliver oxygen and nutrients to cellsRemove and transport waste for elimination

What are the main diseases of the cardiovascular system?

HypertensionCardiac failureCardiac dysrhythmiaAngina and lipid disordersThrombosis

What is the main adrenergic receptor in the CVS? What affect does it have?

Beta 1 receptors in the heart:-increase in rate and force of heart -increase in automaticity of av nodeBeta 2 receptors in smooth muscle-dilate blood vesselsAlpha 1 receptors in smooth muscle -constrict blood vesselsBeta 1 receptors in the kidney-renin secretion

What is the overall effect of sympatheic NS on the heart, and what are the pathalogical implications?

Beta 1 receptors activatedcAMP levels increaseCa2+ ion channel opening-> increase in rate and force of heart decrease in efficiency of heartHypertensionCardiac FailurePost myocardial infarction

What are beta blockers used for? Give examples.

Angina (reduces cardiac work)Hypertension (reduce cardiac output, renin release, SNS activity)Post MI (inhibits increase in SNS activity)Propanolol- non selectiveAtenolol- cardio selective

Give an example of an adrenergic agonist, and explain what it is used for.

Adrenaline activates all adrenergic receptor subtypes.Uses:Cardiac arrest (increases rate and force of contraction)Hypertension (increases peripheral vascular resistance)

What are ACE inhibitors used to treat?

HypertensionCardiac failure

What are Angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists used to treat?

Hypertension Cardiac failure

What are vasodilators used to treat?

Coronary artery diseaseHypertensionCongestive Heart failureCoronary artery insufficiencyPeripheral vascular diseaseHemostasis