APEuro age of absolutism

absolutism

a government which wields a great deal of control over its society

divine right monarchy

god chooses kings, total power in the hands of a chosen king

estates-general

historical parliament of france

letat c'est moi

I am the state"motto of louis XIV

ape

copy

mercantilism

the economic theory that dominated 18th century thought

tariff

tax on an import

league of augsburg

an alliance of anti-french nations organized by william of orangelate 1600s

claimants

one who makes a claim to something

constitutional monarchy

a king whose power is limited by law

polyglots

multiple languages

kaiser

prussian/german emperor

junker

prussian/german nobility

bureaucracy

the machinery of government; usually inefficient and slow moving

asiento

england's right to sell african slaves in spain's new colonies

zenith/nadir

highest/lowest point

mongol yoke

a term for the period in russian history where the russians were enslaved by the mongols

tsar

russian emperor

boyar

russian nobility

autocracy

russian absolute divine right of the tsar to rule russia

kremlin

fortress/palace complex in the heart of moscow; traditional sear of russian power

bicameral

2 house legislative body

social contract

theory of government that there is an unwritten agreement between a people and their government; 1700 popular

leviathon

a great beast of the sea

regicide

the killing of a king

quartering

when a government forces citizens to house soldiers at their own expense

arbitrary

random

martial law

military law

popular sovereignty

all power comes from the people

cavalier/roundheads

supporters of charles during the english civil war/supporters of parliament

republic

a government without a crowned head of state

jean bodin

the republic-god selects kings = divine right-blueprint of absolutism

cardinal richelieu

louis XIIIbuilt up the system of absolutism in france1st goal to make the king supreme in france-broke the nobility-intendants-broke the huguenots2nd goal to make france supreme in all of europe-breaking the hapsburgs(30 years war)

fronde

uprising of frustrated nobles against the growing power of the monarchy

mazarin

guided louis XIV

louis XIV

(bourbon)"sun king"personification of the absolute monarchestablished greatest royal court in history at versaillesaided by mazarin and colbert

colbert

MERCANTILISMfinancial advisor of louis XIV-government should dominate economic planning-goal should be a self sufficient economy-advocated high tariffs-acquire colonies-acquire as much bullion as possible and restrict free trade

30 years war

devastated hapsburgs and HREtreaty of westphalia-began as a civil war in the HRE but soon involved denmark, sweden and france(calvinists were not included in the terms of the peace of augsburgs)

william of orange

enemy of louis XIV-league of augsburgcountered france's dominance"balance of power

war of spanish succession

france and spain against league of augsburg (britain(william III))rooted in the longstanding fears of the dominance of france and the bourbons in europe-marked the end of french expansion-english were becoming powerfultreaty of utrecht -bourbons kept spanish and french thrones-england got asiento and gibralto

edict of fontainbleau

revocation of edict of nantesall huguenots had to convert or leave francelouis XIV"un roi un foi un loi

peter the great

russiacentralized government authorityforced western mannerswarm water port

great northern war

russia vs sweden-goal to secure a "window to the west" for russiatreaty of nystadt

magna carta

king john forced to sign when defeated by nobility-limited his power

english limited government bicameral legislature

house of commons house of lords"consent of the government"-power to tax-power to pass laws

thomas hobbes

first asserted that there is a social conract-the leviathon

english civil war

regicide of charles Ishaped hobbes thoughts

locke

-of civil government: two treatises-agrees with hobbes that there is a social contract-CAN BE BROKEN"right to revolt""life liberty and property

james I

son of mary queen of scots-true law of free monarchsintelligent but bad with parliament

charles I

son of James Ibiggest failure in english historysigned the petition of right for money and then went back on his word(no taxation without representation, no quartering, no arbitrary arrest, no marital law)

eleven years of tyranny

1629-1640when charles ruled as a virtual absolute monarch after recanting the petitionended when he called in parliament to vote in taxes for war w/scots = long parliament

long parliament

led into english civil warfight about who should possess greater power, king or parliament-cavaliers and roundheads

oliver cromwell

led roundheadsbuilt new model armywon the english civil war

english commonwealth

only republic in english historyoliver cromwell as "lord protector"long parliament became the "rump"-first constitution death of cromwell = restoration of the monarchy

charles II

test act tried to ease anti-catholic laws= backfire= clarendon code

test act (1672)

barred all non- anglicans from holding any government or military leadership position

treaty of dover

charles II promised to convert to catholicismLouis XIV promimsed money and military supportNEVER HAPPENED (TREASONOUS)

popish plot

a group of anti james (charles II brother and heir) people concocted a plot to discredit james-claimed he was in a plot to kill the king and take the throne

whigs/tories

popish plot brought out division:whigs were opposed to james' succession to the thronetories supported him

james II

unpopularremarried a young french princess and had a son = permanent catholic succession

glorious revolution

leaders of parliament asked invited william and mary to overthrow james

william and mary

joint sovereignsconstitutional monarchsbill of rightstolerance act

bill of rights

respected the rights of englishmen

tolerance act

gave freedom to all protestants

act of settlement

declared no catholic could ever sit on the english throne and that if queen anne should die childless the throne would pass to the hannover dynasty

Henry IV

concentrated more and more power centralizedefficient government ended religious violencestabilized economyedict of nantes

duke of sully

huguenotbrought into the government by Henry IV

william and mary

joint soverignsoverthrew james IIconstitutional monarchstolerance act -freedom for protestants

treaty of utrecht

ended the war of spanish succession

treaty of westphalia

ended the thirty years war

true law of free monarchs

author james II

the leviathon

author hobbes

new model army

army built by oliver cromwellserved the english commonwealth

the rump

what was left of the long parliament supported oliver cromwell and the english commonwealth

gunpowder plot

guy fawkes and robert catesbyfailed assassination attempt on James Iby blowing up the house of lordsconflict over religious intolerance

romanov

royal family of russia-peter the great

time of troubles

period between the death of the last russian tsar feodor ivanavhof the rurik dynasty and the establishment of the romanov dynasty in 1613

treaty of nystadt

ended the great northern war

brandenburg-prussia

old state of the HREgrew into a power at the end of 30 years warrival of austria for dominance in german europe

hohenzolleran

controlled prussia with a kaiser and no parliamentworked with the junkershighly militaristic style

james II

king of englanddevout catholicdeclaration of indulgence-suspended laws banning catholicsoverthrown by william and mary

charles II

merry monarch"tried to sympathize with the catholics-clarendon code-test act

queen anne

successor of william and maryprotestantall 8 children died

emile

author rousseau

candide

author voltaire

letters on the english

author voltaire