Chapter 2

T or F:Pathogens grow well at 155�F

F

T or F:A person with hepatitis A may experience double vision

F

T or F:Bacillus cereus is commonly linked with untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures

F

T or F: Purchasing fish from approved, reputable suppliers can help prevent anisakiasis

F

T or F: A person with ciguatera fish poisoning often swets & experiences a burning sensation in the mouth

F

Microorganisms that cause illness are called _______.

Pathogens

What are the 4 types of pathogens that cause foodborne illness?

1. Viruses2. Bacteria3. Parasites4. Fungi

What are the 6 conditions that pathogens need to Grow?

FAT TOM:FoodAcidityTimeTemperatureOxygenMoisture

What pH range is best for the growth of pathogens?

4.6 to 7.5 (slightly acidic)

What is the temperature danger zone?

The temperatures where pathogens grow well (between 41� & 135�F)

What foods are most likely to become unsafe?

Milk & dairy productsEggsMeatsPoultryFishShellfish & CrustaceansBaked potatoesCooked rice, beans, veggiesSoy productsSprouts & seedssliced melons cut tomatoesuntreated garlic & oil mixtures

What factors can you most easily control?

Time & Temperature

What are the characteristics of viruses?

1. They survive freezer temperatures2. They cannot grow on food but can in a host that eats the food3. Can contaminate both food & water4. Can be transmitted from person to person or by food-contact surfaces

Three things to prevent the spread of viruses

1. Keep foodhandlers who are vomiting or have diarrhea or jaundice from working2. Make sure food handlers wash hands3. Minimize bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat food

What foods are linked to Hepititis A & Norovirus?

1. Read-to-eat food2. Shellfish from contaminated waters

Jaundice is a symptom of _______

Hepititis A

What are the phases of bacterial growth?

1. Lag2. Log3. Stationary4. Death

What food is comonly linked with Bacillius cereus?

Cerial products such as cooked rice dishes

How can you prevent the spread of Bacillius cereus?

1. Cook food to minimum internal temperatures2. Hold food at proper temperatures3. Cool food correctly

What food are commonly linked with Listeriosis?

Read-to-eat foods, deli meats, & hot dogs

What population are most affected by Listeria monocytogenes?

Pregnant women & their unborn children

How can you prevent the spread of listeriosis?

1. Throw out any product that is past it's due date2. prevent cross-contamination with ready-to-eat food

What is the microorganism that causes Hemorrhagic colitis?

Shiga-toxin-producing E. Coli

What food is most commonly linked with Hemorrhagic colitis

Raw/undercooked ground beef

What symptoms are most common for Hemorrhagic colitis?

1. Diarrhea that becomes bloody2. Abdominal cramps3. In severe cases, kidney failure

How can you prevent the spread of Hemorrhagic colitis

1. Cook ground beef to a minimum internal temperature of 155�F2. Purchase ground beef from an approved, reputable supplier

What foods are commonly linked with Clostridium perfringens?

Stews & gravies made from meat & poultry

How can you prevent the spread of Clostridium perfringens?

1. Cool & reheat food correctly2. Hold food at correct temperatures

What foods are commonly linked to Clostridium botulinum

Improperly canned foods

What are symptoms linked to Botulism poisoning?

Initial nausea & vomitingWeaknessDouble-visionDifficulty in speaking & swallowingDeath

How can you prevent botulism poisoning?

Inspect & throw out cans that are puffed at the ends

What foods are commonly linked to Salmonellosis?

Eggs & poultry

How can you prevent the spread of Salmonella?

1. Cook poultry & eggs to minimum internal temperatures2. Prevent cross-contamination

What food is most commonly linked with Shigella poisoning?

Salads containing TCS food (potato, tuna, shrimp, chicken, macaroni)

How can you prevent the spread of Shigellosis?

1. Employees ash hands2. Keep flies outside operation3. Keep foodhandlers that have diarrhea out of the operation

What food is most commonly linked with Staphyococcal gastroenteritis?

Salads containing TCS food (potato, tuna, shrimp, chicken, macaroni)

How would you prevent the spread of Staphlococcus aureus?

1. Careful washing of the hands2. Cover wounds & do not touch with hands3. Hold, cool, & reheat foods correctly

What food is linked to Vibrio gastroenteritis?

Oysters from contaminated waters

How can you prevent the spread of Vibrio vulnificus?

1. Cook oysters to minimum internal temperature2. Purchase oysters at an approved, reputable supplier

What food is most commonly linked to Anisakis simplex?

HerringCodMackerel

What are the most common symptoms of Anisaiasis?

1. Tingling in throat2. Coughing up worms

1. What is the common cause of Crytoporidiosis & Giardiasis? 2. What is the common preventive measure?

1. Produce from contaminated water supplies2. Purchase from an approved, reputable supplier

What foods are most commonly liked to Scombroid poisoning? What is the toxin?

Tuna Mahi Mahi Histamine

How do you prevent the spread of Scombroid poisoning?

Purchase fish from an approved, reputable supplier.

Food most commonly linked with Cigatera fish poisoning

BarracudaGrouper

What is the most important way of preventing Cigutarera fish poisoning

Purchasing from an approved, reputable suppliers

What food is commonly linked with Paralytic shellfish poisoning?

ClamsMusselsOystersScallops

What are the common symptoms of Saxitoxin?

1) Numbness2) Tingling of the mouth, face, arms, & legs

What is the most important prevention measure for Paralytic shellfish poisoning?

Purchasing from an approved, reputable supplier.

What foods are commonly linked with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning?

ClamsOystersMussels

What are the most common symptoms of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning?

1) Tingling & numbness of the lips, tongue, & throat2) Reversal of hot & cold sensations

What is the most important prevention measure for Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning?

Purchasing from an approved, reputable supplier.

What foods are commonly linked with Amnesic shellfish poisoning?

ClamsMusselsOystersScallops

What are the most common symptoms of Amnesic shellfish poisoning?

ConfusionMemory LossDisorientationSeizureComa

What is the most important prevention measure for Amnesic shellfish poisoning?

Purchasing from an approved, reputable supplier.

T or F: All pathogens need oxygen to grow

F

T or F: The most important way to prevent foodborne illnesses causes by viruses is to control time and temperature.

F

T or F: Bacillus cees is commonly linked with raw poultry

F

T or F: Parasites cannot grow in food

T

Which of the below is NOT a TCS food: Mashed potatoes Orange juice Pizza with diced tomatoes and green pepper Poached salmon Refried beans Scrambled eggs Shrimp fried rice Tofu ice cream Vanilla milk shake Whole-wheat bread

Orange juiceWhole-wheat bread

List the 6 conditions pathogens need to grow

F - FoodA - AcidityT - TimeT - TemperatureO - OxygenM - Moisture

Foodborne pathogens grow well at temperatures: A. below 32�F B. between 1�F and 40�F C. between 41�F and 135�F D. above 212�F

C.

FAT TOM stands for Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen and... A. Meat B. Moisture C. Melatonin D. Management

B

Which pathogen is primarily found in the hair, nose, and throat of humans: A. Giardia Duodenalis B. Bacillus cereus C. Clostridium batulinum D. Staphylococcus aureus

D

While commonly linked with contamination of ground beef, what pathogen has also been linked with contaminated produce? A. Bacillus cereus B. Salmonella spp. C. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli D. Clostridium perfringens

C

Which practice can reduce Salmonella spp. in poultry to safe levels: A. Storing at 55�F or higher B. Inspecting canned food for damage C. Cooking food to the right temperature D. Purchacing oysters from approved, reputable suppliers

C.

Covering wounds can help prevent the spread of which pathogen: A. Staphylococcus aureus B. Norovirus C. Vibrio vulificus D. Salmonelle spp.

A.

Which foodborne illness has been linked with ready-to-eat food and shellfish contaminated by sewage: A. Hepatitis A B. Anisaiasis C. Shigellosis D. Botulism

A

Viruses such as Norovirus and hepatitis A can be spread when foodhandlers fail to: A. Use pasteurized eggs B. wash their hands C. determine the moisture level D. purchase beef from approved reputable suppliers

B

What is the best way to prevent a foodborne illness caused by seafood toxins? A. Freezing seafood prior to cooking it B. Purchasing smoked or cured seafood C. Purchasing seafood from an approved, reputable supplier D. Cooking seafood to the right minimum internal temperature

C

A person who ate raw oysters later became disoriented and suffered memoy loss. What illness was most likely the cause? A. Amnesic shellfish poisoning B. Paralytic shellfish poisoning C. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning D. Hemorrhagic shellfish poisoning

A

Foodservice operations should not use mushrooms unless they have been: A. stored at 41�F or lower B. frozen before cooking or serving C. purchased from an approved, reputable supplier D. cooked to an internal temperature of 135�F

C

What food items are better able to support the growth of pathogens?

MilkEggsMeatsPoultryFish/shellfishCooked rice, beans, vegetablesSoy productsSproutsSliced melons, cut tomatoesUntreated garlic & oil mixtures

How can an outbreak of Norovirus be prevented?

Practicing good personal hygiene

What measures should be taken to prevent a seafood-specific foodborne illness?

Purchasing seafood from approved reputable suppliers

How can plant toxins be prevented from getting into food?

Purchase from only approved, reputable suppliers

Foodborn pathogens grow well at temperaturesA. below 32�FB. between 1�F & 40�FC. between 41�F & 135�FD. above 212�F

C.

FAT TOM stands for Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen and A. MelatoninB. MeatC. MoistureD. Management

C.

Which pathogen is primarily found in the hair, nose, & throat of humansA. Staphylococcus aureusB. Clostridium botulinumC. Giardia duodenalisD. Bacillus cereus

A.

Which practice can reduce Salmonella in poultry to safe levels?A. Inspecting canned food for damageB. Storing food at 55�F or higherC. Purchasing oyster from approved, reputable suppliersD. Cooking food to the right temperature

D.

Covering wounds can help prevent the spread of which pathogen?A. Staphylococcus aureusB. Vibrio vulnificusC. SalmonellaD. Norovirus

A.

Which foodborne illness has been linked with ready-to-eat food and shellfish contaminated by sewage?A. BotulismB. AnisakiasisC. Hepititus AD. Shigellosis

C.

Viruses such as Norovirus and Hepititis A can be spread when foodhandlers fail to A. purchase beef from approved, reputable suppliersB. wash their handsC. determine the correct moisture levelD. use pasturized eggs

B.

What is the best way to prevent a foodborne illness caused by seafood toxinsA. Purchasing seafood from approved, reputable suppliersB. Cooking seafood to the right minimum internal temperatureC. Purchase smoked or cured seafoodD. Freezing seafood prior to cooking it

A.

A person who ate raw oysters later became disoriented and suffered memory loss. What illness was most likely the causeA. Amnesic shelllfish poisoningB. Neurtoxic shelllfish poisoningC. Paralytic shelllfish poisoningD. Hemorrhagic shelllfish poisoning

A.

Foodservice operations should not use mushrooms unless they have beenA. cooked to an internal temperature of 135�FB. purchased from an approved, reputable supplierC. frozen before cooking or servingD. stored at 41�F

B.