Chapter 4/4

Lumbar Spine

The lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertabrae; also called the dorsal spine

Lumbar Vertebrae

Vertebrae of the lumbar spine


The bone of the lower jaw


The upper quarter of the sternum

Mastoid Process

A prominent bony mass at the base of the skull behind the ear


The upper jawbones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate, and lodge the upper teeth


Parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures


The sum of all the physical and chemical processes of living organisms; the process by which energy is made available for the uses of the organism

Midaxillary Line

An imaginary vertical line drawn through the middle of the axilla (armpit), parallel to the midline

Midclavicular Line

An imaginary vertical line drawn through the middle portion of the clavicle and parallel to the midline


An imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus to the floor

Motor nerves

Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body

Mucous Membranes

The lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly or indirectly with the environment outside the body


The opaque, sticky secretion of the mucus membranes that lubricates the body openings

Musculoskeletal System

The bones and voluntary muscles of the body


The heart muscle


The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or soft palate

Nervous System

The system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary


The most posterior portion of the cranium


The eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma


A tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachia


A female gland that produces sex hormones and ova (eggs)


The front region of the hand


A flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin

Parietal Regions

The areas between the temporal and occiput regions of the cranium


The kneecap; a specialized bone that lies within the tendon of the quadraceps muscle


The circulation of oxygenated blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs

Peripheral Nervous System

The part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These peripheral nerves may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves


The wave-like contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents


The external, visible part of the ear