Biology

which of the following listed below has no circulatory system?

sea anemone

what type of circulatory system is associated with hemolymph?

open

what type of body plan is found in a planarian (only one body opening)?

sac

(w)what type of heart chamber receives blood?

Atrium

(w)what type of heart chamber pumps blood throughout the body to lungs/gills?

Ventricle

(w)How many heart chambers does the amphibian have?

3

In bony fish the ventricle pumps blood directly to the

gills

In all mammals the right atruim

pumps the blood to the right ventricle

In mammals, where does the pulmonary trunk take the blood?

the lungs

What is the thickest-walled and strongest blood vessel in mammals?

aortic artery

Both veins and arteries have the same general structure. An outer layer composed of fibrous connective tissue, a middle layer composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner layer composed of

endothelial tissue

(w) The systemic circuit pumps blood throughout the

body

(w) The pulmonary circuit pumps blood to the

lungs

(w) Is blood pressure highest in arteries or veins?

arteries

All arteries take blood away from the heart, however they do not all carry oxygen rich blood. Which artery in the human body caries oxygen poor blood away from the heart?

pulmonary trunk

What purpose does oxygen serve during the electron transport chain reactions that occu within cellular miochondria?

becomes reduced to water

As carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood carbonic acid begins to form, as a result hydrogen ions are released. What happens to the hydrogen ions in the blood?

they combine with hemoglobin

(w) What is hypertension?

High blood pressure

At maturation red blood cells are saturated with hemoglobin proteins. In fact they are so specialized for the purpose of hemoglobin transport the cells lack

nuclei

which anitbody class is the most important in allergic reactions?

IgE

Which antibody class is the main type in the bloodstream circulation?

IgG

Which antibody class serves as the B cell receptor (BCR)?

IgD

Both macrophages and dendritic cells are able to migrate to the lymph nodes after engulfing bacteria and activate T cells. By what means do these white blood cells do this?

MHC complexes are utilized to present antigens to the T cells

Maturation of T cells occur in the _______

thymus

Nonspecific defenses to invasion of infectious agents include all of the following EXCEPT

antibodies

Redness, heat, swelling and pain are four of the typical outward signs of

an inflammatory response

During an inflammatory response, the individual's capillaries dilate in the damaged tissue region and the capillary walls become more permeable to blood flow. What causes this physiological change?

Histamine

Chronic inflammation is most characterized by

inflammation that persists for weeks or longer

This disease has been associated with chronic inflammation

Lupus erythematosus (arthritis)

Monocytes are a

type of white blood cell

monocytes can mature into

macrophages

Natural Killer Cells (NKC) are

large granular lymphocytes

Certain complement proteins join to form a membrane attack complex that

produces holes in bacteria and some viruses

______ is/are produced by virus infected cells as a warning to noninfected cells.

Interferons

Specific defenses requries that the immune system be able to recognize a specific protein molecule on the surface of a foreign cell or virus. This surface protein is called _______________

An antigen

(w) Where do B cells first form?

Bone marrow

The basic protein structure of an antibody is________

Y shaped

____________ are presented to T cells by dendritic cells or macrophages a after phagocytizing a pathogen.

antigens

A T cell can develop into a cytotoxic T cel or ______

Helper T cell

The primary host for HIV is

helper T cells

active induced immunity develops

naturally after infection, and after immunization

_________ occurs when an allergic response occurs in the blood stream.

Anaphylactic shock

Other than immunity the lymphatic system serves to remove________

excess water from body tissues

Name two lymphatic organs _________ and ___________

Thymas and Spleen

Histamine produced by damaged tissue and mast cells causes specific physiological reactions such as__________

blood vessel dilation

How can a fever help during the inflammatory response?

Temperature can affect growth

Cnidarians and flatworms all have _______

incomplete digestive tracts and a sac body plan

Sessile filter feeders such as clams and oysters are ________

continuous feeders

Many reptiles such as the Brown tree snake have the ability to go long periods without eating. What kind of feeding strategy is observed with animas such as this?

Observed with discontinuous feeders

A strict meat-eater would be described as _______

a carnivore

Cows and horses eat only plant material and are therefore_____

herbivores

Saliva contains what digestive enzyme?

amylase

What is the mass of food called after it has been chewed and ready for swallowing?

a bolus

What is the region in the throat shared b both the digestive and respiratory passages termed?

pharynx

How does the bolus move along the esophagus?

peristalsis

What would best describe the pH of the stomach?

around a pH 2

What enzyme mixed with gastric juices in the stomach begin to breakdown protein?

pepsin

What does bile do?

emulsifies fat in the small intestine

What enzyme(s) COMPLETELY breaks down small peptide molecules in the intestine?

peptidases

What is the final breakdown product of protein?

amino acids

Wy do we need fats and oils in our diet?

Our body uses them to produce steroids and cholesterol and plasma membranes

The gallbladder stores?

bile

Digested fat and oil enters the _______ as lipoproteins

lymphatic system

Undigested food and water together make up the majority of weight found in feces. However, there is a third large component of fecal matter, what is it?

bacteria

Glucose is a _________

simple sugar

_________ is the sequence of events that results in gas exchange between the body's cell and environment

respiration

Name one enzyme produced by the pancreas

pancrantaic amalase

What happens to carbon dioxide when it enters the blood?

it forms carbonic acid

Squids are _________

carnivores and eukaryotic

What does terrestrial mean?

living on land

Give me an example of a gastropod

snail

Do earthworms have a closed or open circulatory system?

closed

Earthworms are grouped in which class?

oligochaetes

What are the small bristle-like appendages found along the segmented body of an earthworm called?

setae

List at least 2 common anatomical features found with earthworms

1.) closed circulatory system2.) segmented

What is by far the largest animal phylum?

arthropods

What does metamorphisis mean?

complete body change

Name an animal that undergoes metamorphisis

dragonfly

At what stage of a star fish's lfe do you find the occurance of bilateral symmetry?

larval/swimming

Give me an example of an arthropod

crabs

What does it mean to molt?

Shed an outside covering and growing larger

Roughly how many species of insects have been identified?

~900,000

Give me an example of an echinoderm

starfish